Upanishads are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings of
Ved'snta. They do not belong to any particular period of Sanskrut literature.
The oldest such as the Brhadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads date to
the late Brahman period (around the middle of the first millennium BCE)
while the latest were composed in the medieval and early modern period.
The Upanishads realize monist ideas, some of which were hinted at in
the earlier texts, and they have exerted an important influence on the
rest of Hindu and Indian philosophy, and are considered one of the 100
Most Influential Books Ever Written.
are a part of Ved'ss which are divided in 2 parts Karm-kand and Jnana-kand.
The latter is also called Ved'snta or the upnishads which deal with the
knowledge of realities of life.
Purans are a group of important Hindu religious texts notably consisting
of narratives of the history of the Universe from creation to destruction,
genealogies of the kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions
of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. Puranas usually give
prominence to a particular deity and most use an abundance of religious
and philosophical concepts. They are usually written in the form of
stories related by one person to another.
Vyas the narrator of the Mahabharat is traditionally considered the
compiler of the all 18 Puranas.
truth of Ved'ss are told in Purans, in a symbolic way in the form of
various stories of incantations of gods, devotees of god, saints and
kings and good and evil, it also shows the conflict between devtas,
gods and asuras (demons).
is a Sanskrut term used to denote rules in a general sense. The word
is generally used as a suffix in the context of technical or specialized
knowledge in a defined area of practice.
- Vaastu Shastra (architectural science), Shilpa Shastra (science of
sculpture) and Artha Shastra (political science). In essence, the shastra
is the knowledge which is based on principles that are held to be timeless.
became divided into various Sakhas or branches, based on the adoption
of different Ved'ss and different readings and interpretations of Ved'ss.
Sects or schools for different denominations of the same Ved's were formed,
under the leadership of distinguished teachers among Brahmins. The teachings
of these distinguished rishis are called sutras. Every Ved has its own
sutras that deal with social, moral and legal precepts are called dharma
sutras, whereas those sutras that deal with ceremonials are called Srauta
sutras and domestic rituals are called gruhya sutras. Sutras are generally
written in prose or in mixed prose and verse. These sutras are based
on divine Ved'ss and are manmade and hence are called Smritis, meaning
"recollected or remembered."
Dharma Sutra of Shukla Yajur Ved is Shankkhalikita.
Gautam Rishi was the most ancient sage of all Brahmin law givers. He
was quoted by Baudhayan and belonged to Sam Ved School. Gautam's teachings
are called Gautam sutra or Gautam smriti.
Gautam Rishi was also the author of Dharm-sutra known as Gautam Dharm
sutra. It is in fact the earliest Dharm Sutra. It contains 28 chapters
with 1000 aphorisms. Almost every aspect of the observances of Hindu
dharma - including the rules for the four Ashram's, the forty sanskaras,
the four varnas, kingly duties, the punishments for various offences,
the obsequies for the dead, do's and don'ts of food consumption, the
dharmas of women, the rules for Praayaschitta (atonement for sins),
and the rules of succession of property. In this sense Gautam's Dharm
Shastra may perhaps be considered the oldest law book of the world.
and Smriti :-
in Sanskrut means hearing or listening and Smriti means that which is
also talk about creation, various gods, duties of kings, politics, system
of justice, etc. There are parts that talk about casts and stages of
life, the code of conduct, the righteous way of living, knowledge and
is a body of literature that addresses the entire spectrum of life.
Smrties are said to be eighteen. Of these the Manu-smriti, the code
of Manu is the most famous. Some of the other famous Smriti are those
of Yajnavalkya, Parashar and Gautam Rishi.
Smriti also known as code of law is the most famous among the law books
of India. It is considered to be one of the earliest books.
in Sanskrut means "joined" or "collected" it may
refer to the basic text of each of the Ved'ss specifically, these texts
with Vedic chant. In simple words the original text of the Ved is known
as the Samhita.
- Gher and Samhita, Charak Samhita, Kashyap Samhita, Ashtavakra Samhita,
Bhrigu Samhita, Yajnavalkya Samhita, Brahma Samhita, Garga Samhita,
Ved means knowledge. It is large body of texts originating in Ancient
India. They form the oldest layer of Sanskrut literature and the oldest
sacred texts of Hinduism.
class of "Vedic texts" is aggregated around the five canonical
Samhitas or Ved'ss proper (turiya), of which three (traya) are related
to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical (Iron Age) Vedic
are additions to the Ved'ss. Gandharv Ved, Dhanur Ved, Ayur Ved and Arth
Shastra are upVed'ss. They are also highly revered and are looked upon
as authentic sources of knowledge.
Ved is Upved of Rig Ved authored by Brahma and twin Gods called' Aswinis'
Ved is Upved of Yajur Ved by Visvamitra. Vishvamitra was taught Dhanur
Ved by Brahma and Lord Shiv.
Ved is Upved of Sama Ved by Sage Bharat who was well versed in music
and dance. Gandharv Ved involVed the traditions of Sangeet (music) started
in Sam Ved.
Shastra is Upved of Atharv Ved. Arth Shastra includes Science of Polity
(a particular form or system of government).
(Caste System) :-
is the stage of life and there are four stages of life everyone passes
through. Varna is translated as caste. It is the classification according
to the inner disposition of a person. Broadly speaking a mind has three
dispositions - Satva, Rajas and Tamas. These three components make up
is purity, clarity, contemplativeness, transparency, etc. Rajas predominate
with activity, ambition, desire, etc. and Tamas predominates mind with
dullness, inactivity, lack of motivation, etc.
3 are present in every person and vary from person to person. At a given
time one of them may be predominant.
four casts Brahman, Kshitray, Vaishya and Shudra are classified according
to these 3 combinations of inner disposition.
predominates and is followed by rajas and tamas (satva-rajas-tamas).
A person with Satva predominance would be contemplative and with
pious mind that is conductive to learning, teaching, worshipping
and praying. He would be spiritual person and hence in the Vedic
times this sort of person was classified as Brahmin.
predominates and is followed by satva and tamas (rajas-satva-tamas)
hence the person is active. Rajas is followed by satva and hence
the activity is likely to be selfless. He is responsible and sensitive
to the needs of others and feels responsible to the fulfill them.
Kshatriya is a leader practicing and protecting dharma and leading
predominate and is followed by tamas and satva (rajas-tamas-satva)
and hence the person is active but followed by tamas so the activity
is likely to be self-centered so, the person is called Vaishya belonging
to trading or merchant class.
predominates here followed by rajas and tamas (tamas-rajas-satva)
hence the person lacks motivation and requires guidance this sort
of person is called Shudra.
person's action and the path that he walks on make him a Brahmin, kshatriya,
vaishya or shudra.
Vedic society recognized and organized the obtaining variations in the
people. The functions performed by all four casts are required for the
successful completion of any endeavor. These four functions are taking
place in our bodies also, the head is the thinking and knowing faculty,
the Brahman, the arms are organs of activity and protection, kshatriya,
the stomach receives, digests and distributes, vaishya. The lets support
entire body and take it from one place o another, shudra.
part of body cannot be said to be superior to the other because the
contribution of all the organs is required for the body to function.
There is harmony in the body because all th components perform their
roles. There is unity in diversity. The spirit of co-operation unites
all the organs.
Vedic society was organized around the principle of co-operation and
not competition among different members. The cast system was required
for the functioning of the society - people to think,, learn and teach;
to lead and protect others; to produce and distribute, and to provide
services. This is how society was organized in Vedic times.
Ved'ss teach that it is not what a person does but the way he does is
important. The scriptures further teach that it is not competition but
it is co-operation that is conductive for inner growth and happiness
division of caste is based on inner disposition and not on birth. How
ever the inner disposition is subjective and there is no way of measuring
or determining that disposition. In order to judge that birth is accepted
as the closest criterion. The principle of the law of karma is involVed
in this determination.
person is born in a given family, in a environment in keeping with his
past karma. A shudra is born as that because that is the appropriate
place according to his karma and he will have the disposition of a shudra.
Since we do not have a way to judge the inner disposition because it
is subjective, an objective criterion has to be accepted. The marriage
in the same caste takes place as there is probability of greater compatibility.
and Karma :-
is known as a correct way of living which is described in Ved'ss and
many other ancient religious books.
means action it can be good or even bad. But, in true sense Karm means
walking on the correct path as described in the ancient religious books.
The theory of karma also states that what ever a person does either
good or bad he will receive the same in return by nature (law).
are many things written about how to live life but according to Ved
Vyas "paropkarya puniyai papai parpidnam" which means doing
good to some one is punya and harassing some one or doing bad to some
one is paap.
has more importance then Dharma because it is always easy to preach
or show a correct path but to walk on the path of Dharma is always difficult
and is considered as a test of human character.
make the matter simpler "just be good and do good" this is
and Nark (heaven and hell) :-
to ancient books swarg is a place where a person enjoys the fruits of
his good deeds that he has done. A person is said to be in swarg till
his balance of good deeds is not finished and after his account of good
deeds gets finished a person has to again take birth.
person who does bad deeds goes to a place called nark where he is tortured
according to the bad things he has done to other people and after he
has suffered the consciences of the sufferings that he has given to
others he again takes birth.
concept of swarg and nark (heaven and hell) can be said that it is all
here on earth. A family or a person who is walking on the path of Dharma
and who is happy, united and lives a satisfied life in what ever they
have are said to be in swarg.
family or a person inspite of having everything who is walking on path
of Adharma (doing wrong things) and has fights in family, differences,
who is unhappy, etc. is said to be in hell.
and God :-
Nature and God (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv)
H + O2 (H2O) makes water same way due to a process of nature a body
is formed and the work of god (brahma) is to put in it soul (atma) that
is to give life.
(Earth), Jal (Water), Agni (Fire), Vayu (Air) and Aakash (Space) are
the 5 elements of Nature it is believed in Hinduism that a human body
is made of these 5 elements and by cremating the body it is believed
that the body finally gets back to original basics which is Nature.
there is any change in environment (nature) its effect can be seen on
body example during winter a person can catch cold and in hot summer
a person can get sunstroke.
when a person is in company of a bad person his thoughts and action
becomes bad and when person is in company of a good person his thoughts
and action becomes good.
we can observe that body and soul are two different identities. Nature
creates body and God (Brahma) puts soul in the body.
life on this planet whether good or bad has a purpose and that is the
reason why it is created. In general the purpose of life is to attain
God realization while doing good in the world but specifically if a
person wants to know his/her purpose of life then meditation is the
only way no person can tell you your purpose of life as its only you
who has to find it out.
destination of every journey is self-realization and in his journey
comes many questions which are like locks and meditation is the key
to open these locks when a person opens these locks he/she comes to
know himself/herself and experiences God and understands the purpose
of his/her life.
your life and it's your journey, saints can guide you and show you the
path but finally it's only you who has to walk on it and the secret
to make your life a wonderful experience is to know your specific purpose
and when you come to know it you put in all your efforts to complete
it in a useful way to the entire mankind with grace (grace means the
exercise of love, kindness, mercy, favor; disposition to benefit or
serve another; favor bestowed or privilege conferred).
means release or to set free from taking birth again and again.
and death is an on going process due to the law of nature. The reason
why a person takes birth and dies is because a person's body is part
of nature and soul is a part of god. A human being or any other living
thing is not complete nature or god and hence what all is not complete
has to get destroyed in the end.
a person gets complete is when he/she is free from his/her worldly desires
and that's when he/she gets complete and attains Moksh (salvation).
path of Moksh (salvation) can be found from Ved'ss, various spiritual
books, guru, meditation, etc.
journey that starts has an end and the end of a person journey is moksh
through self-realization and this no one can give you as it is only
you who has to earn it by walking on the path of dharma.
person who plays games with people, lies, cheats and does many other
bad deeds no matter how many times he goes to a temple and prays he
cannot get god or moksh as he is not walking on the path of dharma.
matter how tough it get to walk on the path of truth a person should
always walk on the path of what is right because in long run the right
is always rewarded.
things are written about moksh and how to attain it but according to
me a person should walk on the right path as described in Dharma and
do daily prayers and meditation. When a person walks on the path of
Karma and does good deeds he attains moksh automatically.
person can have Moksh even when he is alive that is when a person is
free from all desires and wishes he is said to have attained Moksh.
is a person who gives knowledge it is not necessary that only a saint
can be a guru even parents can be guru as they teach their children's,
any person who give true knowledge which enlightens a person is Guru.
instructs about various rituals, various codes of conduct and how to
make our life worshipful, prayerful. It teaches a way of life based
on responsibly, a sense of gratitude, sensitivity about one's place
in universe and the grace that is enjoyed. It is a beautiful way of
life that Ved'ss teach us.
word 'Trishul' is derived from the Sanskrut words, 'Tri' meaning three
and 'Shul' meaning a spiked weapon. Indian mythology has it that this
three edged spiked weapon was a powerful and all pervasive weapon of
Lord Shiv and other Goddesses.
It was effectively used to ward off evil. The 'Trishul' as a weapon
has been used ever since then to symbolize the victory of truth and
righteousness over evil. According to mythology, surviving the onslaught
of the Trishul is impossible.