location in Iraq
: 32°05'34 N 44°47'00 E
(Sumerian: Marda, modern Tell Wannat es-Sadum or Tell as-Sadoum, Iraq)
was an ancient Sumerian tell (hill city). Marad was situated on the
west bank of the then western branch of the Upper Euphrates River west
of Nippur in modern-day Iraq and roughly 50 km southeast of Kish, on
the Arahtu River.
city's ziggurat E-igi-kalama (House which is the eye of the Land) was
dedicated to Ninurta the god of earth and the plow, built by one of
Naram-Sin's sons, as well as the tutelary deity Lugal Marada (also Lugal-Amarda).
The city fell into the bounds of the Akkadian empire after the conquest
of Sargon of Akkad.
Marad was established ca. 2700 BC, during the Sumerian Early Dynastic
II period. Although Marad is not mentioned in the Sumerian King List
and in the earliest city lists, it does appear in the temple hymns of
the Early Dynastic period, 42 in all, referring to 35 different cities
in the southern alluvium and praising their main gods—in this
instance, Lugal –Mar(a)da (some cities had more than one).
for Naram-Sin's temple construction in Marad by his grandson Lipit-Ili
The site of Marad covers an area of less than 124 hectares (500 acres).
was excavated by a team from Qadissiyyah University in 1990 led by Na'el
Hannoon, and in 2005 and 2007 led by Abbas Al-Hussainy. Excavations
resumed in 2019.