Major Deities :


Hadad (or Adad) :


Storm and rain god


Enlil (or Ashur) :


God of air, head of the Assyrian and Sumerian pantheon


Anu (or An) :


God of heaven and the sky, lord of constellations, and father of the gods


Dagon (or Dagan) :


God of fertility


Enki (or Ea) :


God of the Abzu, crafts, water, intelligence, mischief and creation and divine ruler of the Earth and its humans


Ereshkigal :


Goddess of Irkalla, the Underworld


Inanna (later known as Ishtar) :


Goddess of fertility, love, and war


Marduk :


Patron deity of Babylon who eventually became regarded as the head of the Babylonian pantheon


Nabu :


God of wisdom and writing


Nanshe :


Goddess of prophecy, fertility and fish


Nergal :


God of plague, war, and the sun in its destructive capacity; later husband of Ereshkigal


Ninhursag (or Mami, Belet-Ili, Ki, Ninmah, Nintu, or Aruru) :


Earth and mother goddess


Ninlil :


Goddess of the air; consort of Enlil


Ninurta :


Champion of the gods, the epitome of youthful vigor, and god of agriculture


Shamash (or Utu) :


God of the sun, arbiter of justice and patron of travelers


Sin (or Nanna) :


God of the moon


Tammuz (or Dumuzid) :


God of food and vegetation

Minor deities :

This is only some of them. There are thousands.


Abu :


A minor god of vegetation


Ama-arhus :


Akkadian fertility goddess; later merged into Ninhursag


Amasagnul :


Akkadian fertility goddess


Amurru :


God of the Amorite people


An :


A goddess, possibly the female principle of Anu


Arah :


The goddess of fate


Asaruludu or Namshub :


A protective deity


Ashnan :


Goddess of grain


Aya :


A mother goddess and consort of Shamash


Azimua :


A minor Sumerian goddess


Bau :


Dog-headed patron goddess of Lagash


Belet-Seri :


Recorder of the dead entering the underworld


Birdu :


An underworld god; consort of Manungal and later syncretized with Nergal


Bunene :


Divine charioteer of Shamash


Damgalnuna :


Mother of Marduk


Damu :


God of vegetation and rebirth; possibly a local offshoot of Dumuzi


Emesh :


God of vegetation, created to take responsibility on earth for woods, fields, sheep folds, and stables


Enbilulu :


God of rivers, canals, irrigation and farming


Endursaga :


A herald god


Enkimdu :


God of farming, canals and ditches


Enmesarra :


An underworld god of the law, equated with Nergal


Ennugi :


Attendant and throne-bearer of Enlil


Enshag :


A minor deity born to relieve the illness of Enki


Enten :


God of vegetation, created to take responsibility on earth for the fertility of ewes, goats, cows, donkeys, birds


Erra :


Akkadian god of mayhem and pestilence


Gaga :


A minor deity featured in the Enûma Eliš


Gatumdag :


A fertility goddess and tutelary mother goddess of Lagash


Geshtinanna :


Sumerian goddess of wine and cold seasons, sister to Dumuzid


Geshtu-E :


Minor god of intelligence


Gibil or Gerra :


God of fire


Gugalanna :


The Great Bull of Heaven, the constellation Taurus and the first husband of Ereshkigal


Gunara :


A minor god of uncertain status


Hahanu :


A minor god of uncertain status


Hani :


An attendant of the storm god Adad


Hayasum :


A minor god of uncertain status


Hegir-Nuna :


A daughter of the goddess Bau


Hendursaga :


God of law


Ilabrat :


Attendant and minister of state to Anu


Ishum :


Brother of Shamash and attendant of Erra


Isimud :


Two-faced messenger of Enki


Ištaran :


God of the city of Der (Sumer)


Kabta :


Obscure god “Lofty one of heaven”


Kakka :


Attendant and minister of state to both Anu and Anshar


Kingu :


Consort of Tiamat; killed by Marduk, who used his blood to create mankind


Kubaba :


Tutelary goddess of the city of Carchemish


Kulla :


God of bricks and building


Kus (god) :


God of herdsmen


Lahar :


God of cattle


Lugal-Irra :


Possibly a minor variation of Erra


Lulal :


The younger son of Inanna; patron god of Bad-tibira


Mamitu :


Sumerian goddess of fate


Manungal :


An underworld goddess; consort of Birdu


Mandanu :


God of divine judgment


Muati :


Obscure Sumerian god who became syncretized with Nabu


Mushdamma :


God of buildings and foundations


Nammu :


A creation goddess


Nanaya :


Goddess personifying voluptuousness and sensuality


Nazi :


A minor deity born to relieve the illness of Enki


Negun :


A minor goddess of uncertain status


Neti :


A minor underworld god; the chief gatekeeper of the netherworld and the servant of Ereshkigal


Nibhaz :


God of the Avim


Nidaba :


Goddess of writing, learning and the harvest


Namtar :


Minister of Ereshkigal


Nin-Ildu :


God of carpenters


Nin-imma :


Goddess of the female sex organs


Ninazu :


God of the underworld and healing


Nindub :


God associated with the city Lagash


Ningal :


Goddess of reeds and consort of Nanna (Sin)


Ningikuga :


Goddess of reeds and marshes


Ningirama :


God of magic and protector against snakes


Ningishzida :


God of the vegetation and underworld


Ninkarnunna :


God of barbers


Ninkasi :


Goddess of beer


Ninkilim :


"Lord Rodent" god of vermin


Ninkurra :


Minor mother goddess


Ninmena :


Sumerian mother goddess who became syncretized with Ninhursag


Ninsar :


Goddess of plants


Ninshubur :


Sumerian messenger goddess and second-in-command to Inanna, later adapted by the Akkadians as the male god Papsukkal


Ninsun :


"Lady Wild Cow"; mother of Gilgamesh


Ninsutu :


A minor deity born to relieve the illness of Enki


Nintinugga :


Babylonian goddess of healing


Nintulla :


A minor deity born to relieve the illness of Enki


Nu Mus Da :


Patron god of the lost city of Kazallu


Nunbarsegunu :


Goddess of barley


Nusku :


God of light and fire


Pabilsag :


Tutelary god of the city of Isin


Pap-nigin-gara :


Akkadian and Babylonian god of war, syncretized with Ninurta


Pazuzu :


Son of Hanbi, and king of the demons of the wind


Sarpanit :


Mother goddess and consort of Marduk


The Sebitti :


A group of minor war gods


Shakka :


Patron god of herdsmen


Shala :


Goddess of war and grain


Shara :


Minor god of war and a son of Inanna


Sharra Itu :


Sumerian fertility goddess


Shul-pa-e :


Astral and fertility god associated with the planet Jupiter


Shul-utula :


Personal deity to Entemena, king of the city of Eninnu


Shullat :


Minor god and attendant of Shamash


Shulmanu :


God of the underworld, fertility and war


Shulsaga :


Astral goddess


Sirara :


Goddess of the Persian Gulf


Siris :


God of beer


Sirsir :


God of mariners and boatmen


Sirtir :


Goddess of sheep


Sumugan :


God of the river plains


Tashmetum :


Consort of Nabu


Tishpak :


Tutelary god of the city of Eshnunna


Tutu :


Tutelary god of the city of Borsippa


Ua-Ildak :


Goddess responsible for pastures and poplar trees


Ukur :


A god of the underworld


Uttu :


Goddess of weaving and clothing


Wer :


A storm god linked to Adad


Zaqar :


Messenger of Sin who relays communication through dreams and nightmares


Primordial beings :


Abzu :


The Ocean Below, the name for fresh water from underground aquifers; depicted as a deity only in the Babylonian creation epic Enûma Eliš


Anshar :


God of the sky and male principle


Kishar :


Goddess of the earth and female principle


Kur :


The first dragon, born of Abzu and Ma. Also Kur-gal, or Ki-gal the underworld


Lahamu :


First-born daughter of Abzu and Tiamat


Lahmu :


First-born son of Abzu and Tiamat; a protective and beneficent deity


Ma :


Primordial goddess of the earth


Mummu :


God of crafts and technical skill




Primordial goddess of the ocean


Demigods and Heroes :


Adapa :


A hero who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality


The Apkallu :


Seven demigods created by the god Enki to give civilization to mankind


Gilgamesh :


Hero and king of Uruk; central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh


Enkidu :


Hero and companion of Gilgamesh


Enmerkar :


The legendary builder of the city of Uruk


Lugalbanda :


Second king of Uruk, who ruled for 1,200 years


Utnapishtim :


Hero who survived a great flood and was granted immortality; character in the Epic of Gilgamesh


Spirits and demons :


Alû :


Demon of night


Asag :


Monstrous demon whose presence makes fish boil alive in the rivers


Asakku :


Evil demon(s)


The edimmu :


Ghosts of those who were not buried properly


Gallû :


Underworld demon


Hanbi or Hanpa :


Father of Pazuzu


Humbaba :


Guardian of the Cedar Forest


Lamashtu :


A malevolent being who menaced women during childbirth


Lilû :


Wandering demon


Mukil reš lemutti :


Demon of headaches


Pazuzu :


King of the demons of the wind; he also represented the southwestern wind, the bearer of storms and drought


Rabisu :


An evil vampiric spirit 


Šulak :


Šulak the bathroom demon, “lurker” in the bathroom


Zu :


Divine storm-bird and the personification of the southern wind and the thunder clouds


Legendary beasts :


Battle Bison beast : One of the creatures slain by Ninurta


The eleven mythical monsters created by Tiamat in the Epic of Creation, Enûma Eliš :


Bašmu :


“Venomous Snake”


Ušumgallu :


“Great Dragon”


Mušmahhu :


“Exalted Serpent”


Mušhuššu :


“Furious Snake”


Lahmu, :


the “Hairy One”


Ugallu :


the “Big Weather-Beast”


Uridimmu :


“Mad Lion”


Girtablullû :




Umu dabrutu :


“Violent Storms”


Kulullû :




Kusarikku :




Source :