There are Major 4 Dynasties in Aryan Kshatries (warriors) 1. Solar Dynasty (Surya Vansh) 2. Lunary Dynasty (Chandra Vansh) 3. Fire Dynasty (Agni Vansh) and 4 Sage Dynasty (Rishi Vansh).

Solar, Lunary, Fire and Sage all these dynasties have origin of Brahmin i.e. they have originated from Brahmin Sages and 9 Brahmins and 1 Daksh originated from Lord Bramha.

Origin of Brahmin Sages :


Bramha had 10 manasputra (mind born sons) which are Angiras, Atri, Bhrigu, Kratu, Mareechi, Narad, Pulatsya, Pulah, Vashishth and Daksh.


Let us start understanding one by one these Aryan Dynasties :


1. Solar Dynasty (Surya Vansh) :


Bramha had 10 manasputra (mind born sons) which are Angiras, Atri, Bhrigu, Kratu, Mareechi, Narad, Pulatsya, Pulah, Vashishth and Daksh.


Mareechi had son named Kashyap, Kashyap had son named Vivaswan, Vivaswan had son named Manu, and many had son named Ishvaku.


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2. Lunar Dynasty (Chandra Vansh) :


Bramha had 10 manasputra (mind born sons) which are Angiras, Atri, Bhrigu, Kratu, Mareechi, Narad, Pulatsya, Pulah, Vashishth and Daksh.


Atri had a son named Chandra, Chandra had a son named Buddh, Buddh had a son named Pururava, Pururava had a son named Ayu, Ayu had a son named Nahush and Nahush had a son named Yayati.


Yayati had 5 sons named Anu, Puru, Drahyu, Yadu and Turvasu.


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3. Fire Dynasty (Agni Vansh) :


There are many theories related to Agni Vansh which I am writing below.


In Indian culture, the Agni Vanshi (Agni Kul) are people who claim descent from Agni, the Vedic god of fire.

According to medieval legends, there are four Agnivanshi clans: Chauhans (Chahamanas), Parihars (Pratiharas), Parmars (Paramaras) and Solankis (Chaulukyas).

The Agnikul legend of Nava-Sahasank-Charit :

On Mount Arbud (Abu), the priest of Ikshvaku royal house (Vashisth) once made a sacred grove. The son of Gadhi (Vishvamitra) stole the wish-granting cow of Vashisth, just like Kartavirya Arjun had once stole the cow of Jamadagni. The barkcloth on the bosom of Arundhati (Vashisth's wife) became soaked with tears. The earliest of the knowers of Atharv Ved (Vashisth) then made a fire offering with mantras. A hero with a bow, a crown and golden armour emerged from the fire. He brought back Vashisth's cow. The grateful owner of the cow named this hero "Paramar" ("slayer of the enemy"), and gave him the power to rule the entire earth. From this hero, who resembled Manu, sprang the (Paramar) dynasty.


Padmagupt's Nav-sahasank-charit is based on the life of Sindhuraj, but is of little historical value. The legend is not mentioned in earlier Paramar inscriptions (such as the Harsol copper plates) or literary works (such as Halayudh's Mritasanjivani). Therefore, it appears that Padmagupt invented the legend in late 10th century. By this time, all of the Paramars' neighbouring dynasties claimed descent from mythical heroes or gods: the Pratihars from Lakshman, the Chahamans (Chauhans) from Surya (Sun), the Chaulukyas from Brahma's water pot (chaluk), and the Chandels from Chandra (Moon). The Paramars were the only ones without a legend of mythical origin. This might have motivated Padmagupt to invent a new legend with Sindhuraj's approval.


The post-Sindhuraj Paramar inscriptions and literary works widely mention the Agnikula myth. The Paramara inscriptions which mention this legend include the Udapur Prashasti inscription, the Nagpur stone inscription, the Vasantagarh inscription, the Arthun inscription of Chamundaraj, the Neminath Jain temple inscription, the Donagaragrama inscription, the Patnarayan inscription and the Jainad inscription. Tilak-Manjari by Dhanapal, a contemporary of the Paramar king Bhoj, also supports this account. Some of the later inscriptions mention the name the dynasty's progenitor as "Dhumaraj" (smoke-king) instead of "Paramar".


Chauhan accounts :

The earliest of the Chauhan inscriptions and literary works do not claim Agnivanshi descent. These sources variously state that the dynasty's legendary founder Chahaman was born from Indra's eye, in the lineage of the sage Vats, in the solar dynasty and/or during a ritual sacrifice performed by Brahma.


Some recensions of Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem by Chand Bardai, contain a legend similar to the Paramar legend. However, this version does not present the sages Vashisth and Vishwamitra as rivals. It goes like this :


The Agnikul legend of Prithviraj Raso :

One day, Agastya, Gautam, Vashisth, Vishwamitra and other great sages started a major sacrificial ceremony on Arbud (Mount Abu). Demons interrupted the ceremony by polluting it with flesh, blood, bones and urine. To get rid of these demons, Vashisth performed a Yagya ritual. This led to the appearance of a hero named Pratihar ("door-keeper"), who Vashisth placed on the road leading to the palace. After this, another hero named Chalukk appeared from the hollowed palm of Brahma. Finally, a third hero appeared, who sage named Pavar (or Para-mara, "slayer of the enemy"). However, these three heroes were not able to stop the demons. Vashisth then dug up a new fire pit, and made yet another offering to the fire, to conjure a new hero. This four-armed hero held a sword, a shield, a bow, and an arrow. Vashisth named him Chahavan, performed his coronation with Vedic hymns, and then ordered him to fight the demons. The sage also asked the goddess Ashapura to help the hero. Chahuhvan killed the demon Yantraketu, while the goddess killed the demon Dhumraketu. On seeing this, the other demons fled. Pleased with Chahuvan's bravery, the goddess agreed to be his family deity. Prithviraj Chauhan, the hero of Prithiviraj Raso, was born in this family.

Prithviraj Raso is the earliest source that includes four different Rajput dynasties (not just the Paramars) in this legend. Scholars such as Dasharath Sharma and C. V. Vaidya, who analyzed the earliest available copies of Prithviraj Raso, concluded that its original recension did not contain this legend at all. The earliest extant copy of Prithviraj Raso, dated to 15th century, contains only one sentence regarding the origin of Chauhan dynasty: it states that Manikya Rai was the first valiant Chauhan, and he was born from Brahma's sacrifice. R. B. Singh believes that the 16th century poets came up with the legend to foster Rajput unity against the Mughal emperor Akbar.


Adaptions of the Prithviraj Raso legend occur in later works written under the patronage of the various Chauhan dynasties. One notable adaption is found in Hammira Raso (1728 CE), which describes the life of Hammir-dev, the Chauhan king of Ranthambore. It was composed by Jodharaj, a court poet of prince Chandrabhan of Neemran. Its version of the legend is as follows :


The Agnikul legend of Hammira Raso :

Parashuram slaughtered Kshatriyas (warriors) 21 times. The only escapees were those who disguised themselves as women, those who fled leaving behind their swords and those who fell at his feet. The absence of any warriors led to a dark age, where rakshashs (demons) increased in number, Veds came to be trampled under feet, and Hinduism was forgotten. The sages then visited Parashuram's cave on Mount Abu. There, all the gods, men and nags assembled and came up with a plan to destroy the demons. Vashisth erected a fire altar and worshipped Shiv, who appeared before the sages. But the demons disrupted the ceremony by throwing impurities like blood, flesh and garbage on the altar. Twenty sages, including their leader Vashisth, then invoked Brahma and Shiv. They erected a new altar and conducted a fresh ceremony, singing hymns from the Sam Ved. Following this, four sword-bearing warriors emerged from the fire pit, and defeated the demons. Parashuram and Shakti blessed the newly created heroes. Chauhan, one of the heroes, was four-armed. The sage Bhrigu told him that he would be protected by the goddess Shakti in his endeavours to kill the demons. The goddess protected Chauhan from all dangers: every time he fell at her feet, his strength doubled and he was able to slay the demons. The goddess came to be known as Ashapuri because she fulfilled the hopes ("asha") of the sages.

A slight variation occurs in the writings of Surya Malla Mishrana, the court poet of Bundi. In this version, the various gods create the four heroes on Vashisth's request. According to the bardic tale of the Khichi clan of Chauhans, the Puwar (Paramar) was born from Shiv's essence; the Solankhi (Solanki) or Chaluk Rao (Chaulukya) was born from Brahma's essence; the Pariyar (Parihar) was born from Devi's essence; and the Chahuvan (Chauhan) was born from the fire. The myth also appears with some variations in the Sisana inscription of the Chauhans of Bedla, and the Khyat of Nainsi.


Other accounts :

Dvyasraya-Mahakavya, an account of the Chaulukya dynasty (Solankis) by Hemachandra (c. 1088–1173 CE), mentions the Agnikul legend while describing the origin of the Paramars. The Chaulukyas knew about the Agnikul legend, but associated it with the Paramars, not themselves.


The Bhavishya Puran, some of whose portions date as late as the 19th century, also contains the legend with some variations. In this version, the Kanyakubj Brahmins conducted a sacrifice on Mount Abu to appease Brahm. The recital of the Vedic mantras produced four Kshatriya heroes: Samvedin Paramar, Yajurvedin Chahuman (Chauhan), Trivedin Shukla and Atharv Vedin Parihar (Pratihar).


Interpretations :

Padmagupt's legend appears to be based on a similar story mentioned in Balkand of the Ramayan (1:53:18 — 1:54:3). In this story, Vishvamitra (initially a Kshatriya) snatches Vashisth's Kamadhenu cow (called "Shabala"). With Vashisth's permission, the cow creates the non-Indo-Aryan warriors who defeat Vishvamitr's army. These warriors include the Barbaras, the Kambojs, the Pahlavas, the Shakas, and the Yavans. The Mahabharat repeats this legend with some variations. In this version, the stolen cow (called "Nandini") retaliates by creating the various Malech tribes from different parts of her body. Seeing the power of the Brahmin Vashisth, Vishvamitra decides to become a Brahmin as well.


Some colonial-era historians interpreted the Agnikul myth to suggest a foreign origin for the Agnivanshi Rajputs. According to this theory, the foreign ancestors of these Rajputs came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around 5th century CE. They were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. James Tod, who relied on bardic legends, was the first to propose this theory. He speculated that the Agnivashi Rajputs, who were of "good-stature and fair", could not have descended from the "dark, diminutive and ill-favoured" aboriginal natives of India. He proposed that their ancestors were Scythians and other groups residing beyond the Hindu Kush mountains. A. M. T. Jackson proposed a similar theory, but argued that the Rajputs had originated from Gurjars, who according to him, came to India as part of invading hordes. The basis for his theory was the Agnivanshi myth, and the prevalence of surnames such as Pavar (Parmar) and Chavan (Chauhan) among Gurjars. The theory was further supported by other British scholars as well as some Indian scholars, such as D. R. Bhandarkar.

The Tamil work Purananuru, which predates the Paramars, mentions a fire-born chief: the ruler of Tuvarai (identified with Dvarak). This ruler, who was an ancestor of Pulikatimal Irunkovel of Arayam, came out of "the sacrificial fire-pit of the Rishi".

An inscription issued during the reign of Kulothung Chola III (r. c. 1178–1218 CE) also mentions a fire-born legend. According to it, the Idangai ("left-hand") castes were created from the agni-kunda (fire pit) to protect the sacrificial ceremony of the sage Kashyap. They migrated from Antarvedi to the Chola country as attendants of migrant Brahmins, during the reign of the emperor Arindam.

The legends of the Telugu speaking castes Balijas (including their offshoots Kavarais and Janappans) and Togatas claim that their ancestors were born from sacrificial fire-pits.

A Vanniyar legend claims that their ancestor Rudra Vanniya Maharaj (or Vira-Vanniyan) was born from the flames of a fire sacrifice. This sacrifice was performed by the sage Jambav (also Champuv or Shambhu) to ward off the demons Vatapi and Mahi. Vir-Vanniyan had fours sons, and his family defeated the demons with the help of the goddess Durga.

The 15th century Tamil Mahabharat of Villiputtur Alvar makes three references to Agnivanshi (fire), Suryavanshi (solar) and Chandravanshi (lunar) dynasties. One particular segment describes the Chola king as from the solar dynasty, the Pandyan king as from the lunar dynasty and the Chera king as from the fire dynasty. The more ancient Silappatikaram alludes to the solar ancestry of the Cholas and the lunar ancestry of the Pandyas, but remains silent on the ancestry of the Cheras. The Tiruvilayatar Puranam (or Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam), possibly from the 17th century, repeats the Villiputtur Alvar's account.

Hiltebeitel notes that the common theme among all these "fire-origin" legends is not the theft of a cow: rather, it is the creation of a new order of Kshatriyas (as opposed to the traditional solar and lunar Kshatriyas mentioned in the ancient sources). Hiltebeitel further theorises that the Agnikul myth is of south Indian origin, and may have been transmitted to northern India by the feudatories of the Pallavas and the Chalukyas. He suggests that the Tamil-language Silappatikaram legend is "an Agnikul myth waiting to be realized". It mentions solar and lunar ancestry of the Cholas and Pandyas respectively, but remains silent on the ancestry of the Cheras. According to a legend in this text, after the destruction of the Chola and the Pandya capitals (the latter by agni or fire), it is the Chera king who redeems the royals by establishing the worship of Kannagi. Besides the south Indian legends of fire-origin, Hiltebeitel also connects the Chaulukyas (Solanki Rajputs) to the south Indian Chalukyas of Kalyani in his support. Before the popularisation of the Agnikul myth, both these dynasties claimed origin from Brahma's chaluk (folded palm or water-pot). The Guhilot Rajputs of Mewar as well as the Chaulukyas of Gujarat are known to have employed Brahmins from Deccan for fabricating their myths of origin. D. C. Sircar also suggested that the Paramar court poet Padmagupt might also have been a native of southern India. According to Paramar inscriptions, his patron Vakpati Munja had achieved military successes in southern India.


According to K. N. Seth, the foreign-origin theory is weakened by the fact that the Agnikul legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramar records (such as the Harsol copper plates). Moreover, the earliest Paramar-era accounts do not mention the other Rajput clans as fire-born. The early Chauhan dynasties were centered around Ajmer-Pushkar region, and their association with Mount Abu is a later invention.


R. B. Singh argues that if the ancestors of Rajputs were the Indo-Aryan natives of north-western India, Tod's claim of stark differences between the appearances of the Scythians and the natives is misleading, as both the groups have Indo-European origins.


Fire Dynasty Source :

3. Sage Dynasty (Rishi Vansh) :


Sage Dynasty is the Dynasty formed by marriage between Brahmins and Kshatriyas.