- 1 HYSTASPES
Darius I or Darius the Great (522-486 BC), also called Dariavaush
& Darius Hystaspes (after his father Hystaspes or Vishtasp whom
he succeeded in 550), was the 3rd emperor of the Achaemenian dynasty
in Persia. He consolidated the Persian Empire in the East, &
is noted for his administrative genius & for his building projects.
The mention of people of Gandhara as his subjects in his inscription
at Behistun or Bahistun is the earliest epigraphic record of Indo-Persian
relations, Indian subject-peoples are also mentioned in his inscriptions
are Hamadan, Persepolis, & Naqshi-i-Rustum. According to
Herodotus, Gandhara was included in the 7th satrapy & the valley
of the Sindhu formed the 20th satrapy of Darius’ empire. He
derived large revenue from his Indian dominions which were also
required to supply recruits to his army. With the result that as
the countries grew closer & many Persian words (e.g. daroga
for police official, a term which in British India was officially
used for the head of their thanas, district police stations –
equivalent of sub-inspector in England) & ideas entered into
the political phraseology of India & to some extent also influenced
her art. [S. Bhattacharya: 286-87]
Hystaspes or Darius I or Darius the Great (550–486 BCE), formally
known as Darius the Great, was the third king of the Achaemenid
Empire. He held the empire at its peak, when it included much of
West Asia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, parts of the Balkans (Bulgaria-Romania-Panonia),
portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt (Mudrâya),
eastern Libya, coastal Sudan, Eritrea, as well as most of Pakistan,
the Aegean Islands and northern Greece/Thrace-Macedonia.
ascended the throne :
Darius ascended the throne by overthrowing the alleged magus usurper
of Bardiya with the assistance of six other Persian noble families;
Darius was crowned the following morning. The new king met with
rebellions throughout his kingdom and quelled them each time. A
major event in Darius's life was his expedition to punish Athens
and Eretria for their aid in the Ionian Revolt and subjugate Greece.
Darius expanded his empire by conquering Thrace and Macedon and
invading Scythia, home of the Scythians, nomadic tribes who invaded
Media and had previously killed Cyrus the Great.
W. Bellew writes that At that period, about 450 B.C., Ariana, the
Khorasan, or Afghanistan, we speak of, formed the eastern portion
of the Empire of Darius Hystaspes — Dara son of Gushtasp.
This Darius belonged to a Persian family or tribe, whose seat was
in the north-eastern part of the country we are discussing —
in the Bakhtar province, the capital of which was the city of Balkh,
called by the Arabs Um-al-bilad or "Mother of Cities,"
on account of its great antiquity. He succeeded, about 521 B.C.,
to the empire founded by Cyrus (Kurush), and enlarged and consolidated
by his son and successor Cambyses (Kamhojia, Kamhohji), Cyrus —
whose mother was called Mandane (Mandana ; perhaps a princess of
the Mandan tribe), and said to be a Mede, and whose father was called
Cambyses (Kamhohji ; probably a chieftain of the Kamboh tribe) —
having reduced the Medes and conquered the kingdom of Crcesus the
Lydian (Ludi) thereby became master of all the territory extending
from the Indus to the Hellespont.
organized the empire :
Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing
satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform monetary system,
along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. Darius
also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing
on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon and Egypt. Darius devised
a codification of laws for Egypt. He also had the cliff-face Behistun
Inscription carved, an autobiography of great modern linguistic
significance. Darius also started many massive architectural projects,
including magnificent palaces in Persepolis and Susa.
Inscription and Herodotus :
Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount Behistun which
was written in Elamite, Old Persian and Babylonian between his coronation
and his death. The inscription begins with a brief autobiography
with his ancestry and lineage. To aid the presentation of his
ancestry, Darius wrote down the sequence of events which occurred
after the death of Cyrus the Great. Darius mentions several times
that he is the rightful king by the grace of Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian
God. In addition, further texts and monuments from Persepolis
have been found, including a fragmentary Old Iranian inscription
from Gherla, Romania (Harmatta) and a letter from Darius to Gadates,
preserved in a Greek text of the Roman period.
a Greek historian and author of The Histories, provided an account
of many Persian kings and the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote an extensive
amount of information on Darius which spans half of book 3, along
with books 4, 5 and 6. It begins with the removal of the alleged
usurper Gaumata and continues to the end of Darius's reign.
Darius was born as the eldest of five sons to Hystaspes and Rhodugune
in 550 BCE. Hystaspes was a leading figure of authority in Persia,
which was the homeland of the Persians. Darius's inscription states
that his father was satrap of Bactria in 522 BCE. According to Herodotus,
Hystaspes was the satrap of Persis, although most historians state
that this is an error. Also according to Herodotus (III.139), Darius,
prior to seizing power and "of no consequence at the time",
had served as a spearman (doryphoros) in the Egyptian campaign (528–525
BCE) of Cambyses II, then the Persian Great King. Hystaspes was
an officer in Cyrus's army and a noble of his court.
Cyrus and his army crossed the Aras River to battle with northern
tribes, he installed his son Cambyses II as king in case he should
not return from battle. However, once Cyrus had crossed the Aras
River he had a dream with a vision of Darius in which he had wings
atop his shoulders and stood upon the confines of Europe and Asia
(the whole known world). When Cyrus awoke from the dream, he inferred
it as a great danger to the future security of the empire, as it
meant that Darius would one day rule the whole world. However, his
son Cambyses was the heir to the throne, not Darius, causing Cyrus
to wonder if Darius was forming treasonable and ambitious designs.
This led Cyrus to order Hystaspes to go back to Persis and watch
over his son strictly, until Cyrus himself returned. Darius did
not seem to have any treasonous thoughts as Cambyses II ascended
the throne peacefully, and through promotion Darius was eventually
elevated to Cambyses's personal lancer.
Darius was son of Hystaspes and grandson of Arsames, both men belonging
to the Achaemenid tribe, and being alive when Darius ascended the
throne. Darius justifies his ascension to the throne with his lineage
tracing back to Achaemenes, even though he was distantly related.
For these reasons,
Darius married Atossa, daughter of Cyrus, with whom he had four
sons, 1. Xerxes, 2. Achaimenes, 3. Masistes and 4. Hystaspes.
• He also married Artystone, another daughter
of Cyrus, with whom he had two sons, Arsames and Gobryas.
• Darius also married Parmys, the daughter
of Bardiya, with whom he had a son, Ariomardos.
• Furthermore, Darius married Phratagone,
with whom he had two sons, Abrokomas and Hyperantes.
• He also married another woman of the nobility,
Phaidime, the daughter of Otanes. It is unknown if he had children
• Before these royal marriages, Darius married
a commoner with whom he had three sons, Artobarzanes(the first born),
Arabignes and Arsamenes, while daughters are not known.
Although Artobarzanes was the first born of Darius, Xerxes became
heir and next king through the influence of Atossa, who had great
authority in the kingdom, as Darius loved her, of all of his wives,
history connections :
The Jats are said to be in the armies of Darius and Cyrus in Iran.
find Karwara clan in the history of Iran as Karpaya. Herodotus has
written that at the time of war of Darius the Great and his son,
Xerxes with Greeks they had an army of Indian Jats. In Sojahaj district
of Iran there is a tribe called Karpaya which is of Karav people.
It is possible that these people moved from Mathura district. There
capital might be at Karav, a place in Mathura district. At present
this area of Mathura is occupied by Hanga Jats.
W. Bellew writes that Seventh satrapy of Darius consisted of Sattagydai,
or "Sattag kindred," are now represented by the Khattak,
Shattak, Sattak, and Shitak or Sitak tribes of the Indus border.
Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that Confounding the brave Mandas with
the effete Medes was the most unfortunate event in history. The
mistake become so prevalent that even a proverb was invented in
English equal to the effect that a certain thing is as unchangeable-as
the laws of Medes and Persians. The mistake was detected when the
monuments of Nabonodus and Cyrus were unearthed. It was then discovered
that the whole history was based upon a philological mistake. It
was found that the name of the empire and its people, was not Medes
but Manda. In the words of Prof. Sayce, in his well known book,
Ancient Empires of The East; "when in two generations which
succeeded Darius Hustaspes, Cyrus, became the founder of the present
empire, the Medes and the Manda were confounded, one with the other.
Astyages, the suzerain of Cyrus, was transformed into a Mede and
the city of Ecbatana, into the capital of a Median empire. The illusion
has lasted down to our own age. There was no reason for doubting
the traditional story, neither in the pages of the writers of Greece
and Rome, nor in those of the old testament, nor even in the great
inscriptions of Darius in Behistun, did there seem to, be anything
to cause suspicion upon it.
Singh Dahiya writes that the most solid example of the existence
of the Jats is found in the records of the Van kingdom of Armenia.
Every single name of that kingdom, whether it is of cities or of
the various clans, can-only be identified with the name Jat or its
various clans. After this ninth century B.C. king of the Yen/Ben
(present Beniwal clan) we come across the next kingdom of the Maan
clan called the Mannai kingdom on the Lake Urumiya. This Lake Urumiya
was the Centre of the Jats in the ninth century B.C. and earlier;
and it was from here that Moika, the Urumiy scion of Kushan inscriptions
came to India in the first century A.D. This Lake Urumiya is
situated in the western part of Iran, or bordering Turkey. It was
the reputed birth place of Zoroaster. This 'Maan kingdom' on
the Lake Urumiya, as well as the earlier Venwal kingdom on the Lake
Ven, were later merged in the seventh century B.C. in the kingdom
of Manda clan, under Huvakshatra (Cyaxeres of the Greeks). This
empire of the Mandas was superseded by Cyrus the Great and at that
time, many Jats, who refused to accept the change of government,
went into various directions. Many of them came to India and some
of them spread into Europe where they were called Gots or Goths.
Those who remained there and accepted the change of dynasty by expressing
their loyalty to Darius, were called Euer Gatae, meaning the "benefactor"
Jats, obviously benefactors to the Persians and not to the Jats'
Singh Dahiya In the subsequent paragraph we shall give evidence
to show that these people came to India when the Jat empire of the
Mandas was superseded under Cyrus the Great and Darius. It is also
a well known fact that when with the help of General Harpagus, the
last Manda emperor Ishtuvegu was taken prisoner by Cyrus the Great,
many Central Asian Jats had to run to India and in other directions.
Those who did not lend their loyalty to Cyrus had to flee. Many
others had to flee under his successor, Darius. Jean Przyluski calls
them Bahlikas from Iran and Central Asia.
Singh Dahiya Further we have the Uttara Madra (northern Madra) and
the southern Madra, the latter being in the Punjab. Cambridge Ancient
History mentions, "the land of Uttara Pashtum", i.e.,
northern Pashtoons, somewhere near Armenia. Herodotus, too, mentions
the Pashtoons at two different places; one as part of the thirteenth
satrapy of Darius (with Armenia) and other on the upper Indus, i.e.,
modern Afghanistan. Herodotus, significantly mentions that the Ponians,
a colony of the Tukarians, were shifted by Darius from Black sea
area to Asia, perhaps near about Bactria.
From the 7th century BC onwards, the Getae came into economic and
cultural contact with the Greeks, who were establishing Colonies
in antiquity|colonies on the western side of Pontus Euxinus, nowadays
the Black Sea. The Getae are mentioned for the first time together
in Herodotus (4.93-97) in his narrative of the Scythian campaign
of Darius I in 513 BC. According to Herodotus, the Getae differed
from other Thracian tribes in their religion, centered around the
god (daimon) Zamolxis whom some of the Getae called Gebeleizis.
the period that the Odrysian kingdom flourished between the 5th
century BC and the 3rd century BC, the Getae were mostly under Odryssian
rule, serving them militarily, especially as cavalry, for which
they were famous. After the disintegration of the Odrysian kingdom,
smaller Getic principalities began to consolidate themselves.
Before setting out on his Persian expedition, Alexander the Great
defeated the Getae and razed one of their settlements. In 313, the
Getae formed an alliance with Callatis, Odessos, and other western
Pontic Greek colonies against Lysimachus, who held a fortress at
Tirizis (modern Kaliakra).
Ram Swarup Joon writes with reference to Todd's Rajasthan (based
upon the writings of Justin and Herodotus), thousands of years before
Christ, the Dahiya Mahajati tribe lived on the eastern bank of the
River Sihun (Oxus). The Heir, Bhullar and Sihag sub-tribes lived
in the adjoining country. The Dahiya Jats took part in the battle
between Darius and Alexander.
An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew (p.9)
tells ....But from our more extended inquiry the Baraki of Afghanistan
appear to be no other than the modern representatives of the captive
Greeks who were transported, in the sixth century before Christ,
by Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia, from the Libyan Barke to the
Baktrian territory, as recorded by Herodotus.
district in Baktria to which the Barkai of Herodotus were transported
would appear to be the present Baghlan ; and the existing village
of Baraki Barak there probably marks the site of the village they
there built and named Barke. (HW Bellew, p.10)
Delai is gotra of Jats Uttar Pradesh. It originated from Darius.
Kumar Mathur wrote ... Paras (AS, p.549) is the ancient Indian name
of Iran or Persia. The residents of Paras have been called Parsik
in Sanskrit [p.550]: literature . In Raghuvansh 4,60 and subsequent
verses, Kalidas has pictorially described the war of the Parsikas
and Raghu and Raghu's victory over them, 'Bhalapavarjitesteshan
Shirobhi: Shmashrulayarmi. Tastar Sarghavayatayyah: S Kodudrataparireiv
(4.63) etc. It Parasikon The description of the Shrimashrul Shirs
on which Charitravardhan has written while writing the commentary
has said - 'Paschatya: Shashmruni Sthastitva Keshavapantiti Taddesharakoti:'
This means that these western people shave their hair by shaving
the head. This was the custom of the ancient Iranians, which was
also adopted by the Huns.
knew both the landmark and the waterway to go from India to the
country of Paras - 'Parsikantasto Jetun Pratisthe Sthalvartmna.
Indriyakhyavan Repuntattvagyanen Sanyami '(4.60)
has called Yavani to Parsik women - 'Yavanimukhapadmanam Sehe
Madhumdan Sas. Balatpan Ivabjanan Akaljaldoya (4.61)
was used for all Western foreigners in ancient India though Adyt
It Ioannina (Ionia) The Greeks were labeled. Kalidas called 'Sangramastumulastasya
pashteshwarishvarasai'. The Parsikas have also been called westernized
in Shargakujitvigneya Pratiyodhe Rajasibhutha (4.62). While commenting
on this verse, commentator, Sumiti Vijay, has called the Parsikas
'Sindhutat Vasino Malechharajan' which does not seem to be right
because Raghu. In 4,60 (see above) Raghu of Parasikon wrote to the
Sthlvrtm for victory that certainly that was Smudramarg to get into
the country. In 4,62 (see above), the Parsikas have been described
as endowed with horsepower or horsepower.
Mudrarakshasa 1,20, by writing ‘Medhaksa: Panchamo-Ashmin
Prithuturagbalparasikadhiraj:’, Visakhadatt has indicated
the strong horsepower of the Parsis. Kalidas also mentions the famous
vineyards of ancient Iran - 'Vinayante Smadhyodha Madhubhirvijayashram.
Aastirnajinratnasu Drakshavalayabhoomi (4.65).
Parsikas are mentioned in Vishnu Puran 2,3,17 as follows - 'Madramaramasthambastha:,
relations between Iran and India are very ancient. Dara, the Emperor
of Iran, invaded western Punjab in the sixth century BCE and recovered
tax from there for some time. In the records obtained from his map,
Rustom and Bahiston, Punjab has been described as the richest state
of Dara's empire. It is possible that Kalidas, the national
poet of Gupta period, used Raghu on Parsikas to remove this ancient
bitter historical memory.
Vijay is described. As such, it is a historical fact that the Gupta
emperor Maharaj used to confuse Samudragupt with many kings and
feudatories belonging to Paras and other northwestern regions of
India and he also established matrimonial relations with Samudragupt.
In the eighth century AD, the poetry of the Prakrit treatise
Gaudavho (Gaudavadha), Kanyakubj Naresh Yashovarman's victory over
the Parsis is mentioned.
war with Sethia and the ruling Jats of Thresh state :
The Darius Jat emperor expanded his Manda kingdom by conquering
many countries of Asia far and wide with the help of his Jatsena.
Now he marched towards Europe.
moved his army towards the country of Thresh (Bulgaria). He then
crossed the Danube River and attacked the Scythian Jats, who were
even more heroic and skillful in warfare. Sethian Jatsena retreated
to lure Darius. Darius sent this message to the king of Scythia
- "King of Sithia, why are you running away from me? If you
are like me, stop and fight. If not, there is no need to flee, you
hand me your land and water and surrender, the terms of which can
be decided by treaty."
The message was sent by the Scythian king to Darius, the ideal Jat
reply. The message said that
am not afraid of anyone other than the Sun God, the Emperor of Persia.
I do not run and will not give you land and water. Although I send
you very worthy gifts. "
He sent a bird, a mouse, a frog and five arrows as gifts by his
messenger. Darius speculates that the rat indicates the land and
the frog the water. Accordingly, the Scythians have agreed to give
us land and water and are surrendering. But the father-in-law
of Darius, who was a clever commander, told him the true meaning
of this gift in such a way - "Except you fly into the sky as
a bird or go into the land as a rat or go into the water as a frog,"
Not a single one of you can go back alive, our arrows will pierce
your heart. ”Darius realizes that my army is about to be trapped
in the trap of the Scythian army, crossing the Danube River to save
his life. Done.
the end he went to Susa and left an army under the leadership of
his heroic general Megabazus. The Jats of Thrace took this general
under their control. In this way, Sethian Jat, the ruler of the
Jats of Thrace and the territories of the Danube river, and Kang
Jat, ruler north of Amu Darya, remained independent.