Ang Desh was an ancient Indian kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent and one of the sixteen mahajanpadas ("large state").

Variants :

Ang (Ang, North Bihar) (AS , p.1)
Desh Ang (Ang Desh)

Location :

It lay to the east of its neighbour and rival, Magadh, and was separated from it by the river Champa. The capital of Ang was located on the bank of this river and was also named Champa. It was prominent for its wealth and commerce. Ang was annexed by Magadh in the 6th century BCE.

Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttar Nikaya, Ang also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of ancient janpads. Some sources note that the Angs were grouped with people of ‘mixed origin’, generally in the later ages.

Etymology :

According to the Mahabharat (I.104.53-54) and Puranic literature, Ang was named after Prince Ang, the founder of the kingdom. A king Bali, the Vairocana and the son of Sutap, had no sons. So, he requested the sage, Dirghatamas, to bless him with sons. The sage is said to have begotten five sons through his wife, the queen Sudesna. The princes were named Ang, Vang, Kaling, Sumha and Pundra.

The Ramayan (1.23.14) narrates the origin of name Ang as the place where Kamdev was burnt to death by Shiv and where his body parts (Angs) are scattered.

Jat clans :

Ang / Angi is one of the gotras of Jats. They were inhabitants of the territory of India called Ang.

Ancestry :

Ancestry of Bali

Bhagavat Puran provides us the ancestry of Bali. Bali was a king in line of Anu son of Yayati as under :

Yayati → Anu → Sabhanar → Kalanar → Janamejay → Maha Shal → Mahamanas → Titiksh → Rushadrath → Hom → Sutapas → Bali

As per Bhagavat Puran the Dirghatama Rishi produced on Bali's wife six sons: Ang, Bang, Kaling, Sambhu, Pundra and Odhra

Mention by Panini :

Ang is a name of Country mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Gahadi (4.2.138) group.

Angka is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi.

Angi is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi.

History :

V S Agarwal writes that Panini takes Bhakti to denote loyalty of the citizen to the State either a kingdom or a republic. The Kashik mentions, as examples of this kind of Bhakti or loyalty, 1. Angk, 2. Vangk, 3. Sauhmak, 4. Paundrak, 5. Madrak, 6. Vrijik.

Ang Desh :

Vijayendra Kumar Mathur wrote ... Ang Desh (AS , p.1) or 'Ang Mahajanpad' was an ancient district, concurrent to the present Bhagalpur and Munger districts of the state of Bihar. The capital of Ang was Champa. Even today, the name of a locality in Bhagalpur is Champanagar. According to the Mahabharat tradition, Magadha was conquered by Vrhadrath and other kings of Ang, behind Bimbisar and he himself succumbed to Lipsa, the rising kingdom of Magadh. Lompad, a friend of King Dasharath and Angraj Karna of Mahabharat, ruled there. In the Buddhist scripture 'Angusadnikaya' the Ang has been enumerated in the preteen Buddha preteen districts of India.

The first nomenclature of the Ang country is in the Atharv Ved 5,22,14 - 'Gandharibhyam Moojavadhyogebhyo Magadebhaya: Prayasana Janam Shevadhim Tavamanam Paridadamsi.' this

[p.2]: The non-violent statement indicates that till the creation (or post-Vedic period) of the Atharv Ved, the Ang, like Magadh, was outside the spread of Aryan civilization, which ranged from Punjab to Uttar Pradesh was Ang and Magadh were two parts of the same kingdom in the Mahabharat period. In Shanti Parv 29,35 (Angm Brihadratham Chaiv dead 'srnjaya shushrum'), Magadharaj Jarasandh 's father Brihadrath is the ruler of Ang. Shanti Parv 5,6-7 ('Pritya Dadou Karnai Malinin Nagaramath, Angeshu Narashardul S Rajasit Saptnajit. Palayamas Champancha Karna: Parbalardan:, Duryodhanasyanumate Tavapati Viditana and') is clear that Jarasandha gave Karna Angstha Malini or Champapuri there Was accepted as the king of. Then Duryodhan the equipment was declared Angraj.

In the Vedic period - adverse to the situation of the Vedic period, during the Mahabharat, the Ang came under the influence of the Aryan civilization and only one part of the Punjab - Madra - was considered excluded from the Arya culture at this time. According to the foundation of Angdesh was laid by King Ang. Probably Ang-Vairochan mentioned in Aitareya Brahman 8,22 was the founder of Angraj. It is known from the Jataka tales and other texts of Buddhism that Gautam Buddh. Prior to this, the organ was counted in the Shodash districts of Uttarbharat. The capital of Ang in this period was Champanagari. Angnagar or Champa is also mentioned in the Buddhist 27, 11. In the pre-Buddhist period there was always hostility to Ang and Magadh to the state. Jainasutra - In worship, there is a feeling of enmity with Magadh of Ang and its neighboring countries. The Pragyapana-sutra also mentions Ang along with other districts and Ang and Bang have been described as important places of Aryans. Magadh of the kings of Ang in their opulenceBut there was also authority as appears from the mention of Vidhurpanditjatak (Kavale 6, 133) in which the capital city of Magadh has been described as a city of Angdesh. But this situation did not take long to reverse and Bimbisar, the prince of Magadh killed Angraj Brahmadatt and annexed his kingdom to Magadh. Bimbisar had also been the ruler of Ang till his father's death.

In Jain texts, Kunik Ajatshatru, son of Bimbisara, is described as the king of Ang and Champa. In the Mauryan period, the Ang was definitely under the great empire of Magadh. Kalidas Raghu In 6,27, Angraj is mentioned in the context of Indumati-Swayamvar immediately after Magadh-Naresh, which suggests that Ang's reputation may have been somewhat lower than Magadh in the pre-Gupta period.

Raghu In 6, 27 itself, there is a fascinating description of trained elephants of Angraj - 'Jagad ChannamayamAngnath: SurAngnapratit Yauvanshree: Vinitnag: Kilsutarakararendran Padma underground The Vishnu Puran Part 4, Chapter 18 mentions the Angvan kings. The Kathasaritsagar 44, 9 indicates that in the eleventh century AD, the extension of Angdesh was to the seashore (Bay of Bengal) because one of the towns of Ang was situated on the banks of the Vittankpur sea.

There is an incident in the Mahabharat text that Acharya Drona organized a competition in Hastinapur to demonstrate the war skills of the Kaurav princes. Arjun emerged as the highest talented archer in this competition. Karna challenged Arjun to a duel battle in this competition. But Kripacharya turned down saying that Karna is not a prince. Therefore one cannot participate in this competition. Then Duryodhana declared Karna the king of Ang.

Karngarh :

Vijayendra Kumar Mathur has authored ... Karnagarh (AS, p.143) is a hill near Bhagalpur (the capital of Ang country, ancient Champa). The name of Karnagarh is related to Karna of Mahabharat. Karna was the king of Angdesh. This place is pre-Buddhist. In the context of Digvijay of the east direction of Bhima in the Mahabharat, after the city of Magadh, Girivraj, after Magadhi or Munger, the place where Bhim and Karna. The description of the war is definitely what it looks like - 'sa karnam yudh nirjitya vashekritva f bharato, tato vijigye balwan rajna: mountaineer:'. (Sabha Parva Mahabharata 31,20)

Aparn :

President Vijender Kumar Mathur has articles ... Aparn (AS , Pk64): According to = Buddhcharita Ang and Suhm city located in the middle of where Gautam Buddh was initiated to Kanye and Shel called Brahmins.

Vijayendra Kumar Mathur has written ... Kekat (AS, p.192) was a transitional state of Gaya (Bihar). According to the Purans, Buddhavatar Kekat took place in the country itself. The first mention of Kikat is in the Rigved - 'Kinte krirmantanti kiketeshu gavo nashiran duhe na tapanati dharmaan aobharpramagandasya Vedo naichashkhan's madhvandrandhyana:' 3,53, 14. In this quotation Pramagand is mentioned. According to Yask (Nirukta 6,32) Kikat was a non-Aryan country. Kekat was a name of Magadh in the Purans and was generally considered unholy; Just gone and Rajgrih was worshiped in the form of pilgrimage - 'Kiketeshu Gaya Punya Punya Rajgriha Vanam' Vayu Puran 108,73.

In Brihadharmapuran, Kekat is considered as an evil country, but Karnada and Gaya are said to be exceptions - 'Tatra Desh Gaya Naam Punyadeshosti Wushrut: River N Karnada Name Pitranam Swargadayini' 26,47. In the Shrimad Bhagwat, some of the unholy or non-Aryan people have counted Kekat or Magadh. There was a similar belief in the Mahabharat period. In the context of the pilgrimage of the Pandavs, it is said that when they were going to enter the [p.193] border of Magadh, their fellow Brahmins returned from there. It is possible that the basis of this belief is the late arrival of Vedic civilization in Magadh or North-east India. Atharv Ved also organ from 5,22,14 And Magadh proves to be outside the spread of Vedic civilization. In the Purans, Magadh was considered to be a unique country due to being the center of Buddhism.

Ang in the Vedas :

Earliest reference to Angs occurs in Atharav Ved (V.22.14) where they find mention along with the Magadhs, Gandharis and the Mujavatas, all apparently as a despised people. The Jain Prajnapan ranks the Angs and the Vangs in the first group of Aryan peoples.

Based on Mahabharat evidence, the kingdom of the Angs roughly corresponded to the region of Bhagalpur and Monghyr in Bihar and parts of Bengal; later extended to include most of Bengal. River Champa (modern Chandan) formed the boundaries between the Magadh in the west and Ang in the east. Ang was bounded by river Koshi on the north. According to the Mahabharat, Duryodhan had named Karna the King of Ang.

In Mahabharat :

Military Campaign of Karna: Mahabharat, Book 3, Chapter 252.... Then descending from the mountain and rushing to the east, he reduced the Angs, and the Bangs, and the Kalingas, and the Mandikas and the Magadhs. the Karkakhands; and also included with them the Avasiras, Yodhyas, and the Ahikshatras. Having (thus) conquered the eastern quarter Karna then presented himself before Batsa-bhumi.

Source :