was a country in central-eastern India, which comprised of most of the
modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering
state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land that extended
from the river Subarnarekha to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to Amarkantak
range in the West. The kingdom had a formidable maritime empire with
trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo,
Bali, Sumatra and Java. Colonists from Kaling settled in Sri Lanka,
Burma, and the Indonesia archipelago. Even today Indians are referred
to as Keling in Malaysia because of this. Many Sri Lankan kings, both
Sinhalese and Tamil, claimed decent from Kaling dynasties.
Kalingnagara (Kalingnagar) (Orissa) (AS, p.149)
Give Kannagar . Kalingnagara (Kalingnagar) (AS , p.131)
Mention by Panini :
Kaling is a reference to Panini in Ashtadhyayi.
mana is a reference to Panini in Ashtadhyayi.
Agrawala, that VS, [3 in a], writes that Ashtadhyayi of the Panini mentions
janpad Kaling (Kaling), (IV1170), - Boundaries of the Kaling- and Magadh
janapads each other What touched.
mentions the victory of Kashmir king Lalitaditya over various kingdoms.
He marched thence with his army towards the east. He passed Kaling,
where elephants were caught. And then he came to Gour. Thence he reached
the Eastern Sea, and pursued his course along the coast towards the
south, conquering as he went. Karnata submitted on his approach. A beautiful
Karnati lady named Ratti who ruled supreme in the south, her territories
as far as the Vindhya hills, also submitted to him. The army then rested
on the banks of the Kaveri beneath the palm trees, drinking the water
of coconuts. Thence he marched to Chandanadri. And then the king crossed
the sea passing from one Island to another ; and thence marched towards
the west, the sea singing the songs of his victory. He then attacked
the seven Kramuk and the seven Kongkan which suffered much thereby.
His army was anxious to enter Dvaraka situated on the Western Sea. The
army then crossed the Vindhya hills and entered Avanti where there was
an image of Shiv named Mahakal.
Vijayendra Kumar Mathur has written… Kalingnagar Orissa (AS ,
p.149) was the main city of ancient Kaling. It is mentioned in Kharavel's
inscription (1st century AD). The entrance to the city and the corridor
were repaired by Kharavel in the first year of his reign. Kalingnagar
is identified with Mukhlingam , which is situated on the banks of the
Vansadhara river . [p.150]: Bhubaneswar located near Shishupalgdh called
ancient Kalingnagar (see-Kaling; Shishupalgdh). The geographical Ptolemy
of ancient Rome may have made Kannanagar the same as Kannagar. It is
written (see History of Orissa, Mahtab, p. 24). Kalingnagar was made
its capital by Chod Gangdev (1077-1147 AD) and this city remained in
this form till 1135 AD.
Vijayendra Kumar Mathur wrote… 1. Kaling (AS , p.148): was largely
the name of South Orissa. Northern Orissa was called Utkal or Ulkaling
(North Kaling) in ancient times. In the opinion of some scholars - Silvan
Levi, Jean Prejiluski, etc., the names of Kaling, Tosal, Kosal, etc.
are of Austric language. Austric people were inhabited even before Dravidians
in India. Mahabharat, Van Parv 114,4 indicates that the Vaitarni River
of OrissaKaling started from Godavari flowed on its southern border
which separated it from Andhra-Desh.
is mentioned in Uttaradayan Sutra, Mahagovind Sutra, Panini 4.1.170
and Bodhayan 1,1,30-31. From Mahabharat Shanti Parv, 4,2, it is reported
that the king of the place during the Mahabharat was Chitrangad - 'Kaling
vishye rajna rajnatanthangadasya'. Among the natives, the capital of
Kaling has been mentioned in a city called Dantpur, but in the Mahabharat,
this position is available to Rajpur - Srimadrajapuram Naam Nagantra
Bharat'- Shanti Parva 4,3. Another city of Kaling, Sinhala, is mentioned
in the Mahavastu (Senart - page 432). Pliny (first Sati AD), the ancient
historian of Rome, has told a place called Parathalis, the capital of
Kaling. Jain writers of Kaling in KanchanpurCalled mentioned a city
(Indian Antikweri, 1891, p 0.375) Kalingnagar mentioned.
It is in Kharavel's inscription (1st century AD), who was the king of
Kaling. The entrance to the city and the corridor were repaired by Kharavel
in the first year of his reign. Kalingnagar is identified with Mukhlingam
(near Shishupalgarh) which is situated on the banks of the Vansadhara
river. Kaling is also mentioned several times in the Vishnupuran - 'Kalingdesadabhyetya
preetan Sumhatmana' 3,7,36; 'Kaling Mahish Mahendra Bhowman Guha Bhokshyanti'
- 4,24,65 indicates that Kaling probably had a Guha-people kingdom before
the Gupta rule. Kalidas has described Kaling to the south of Utkal in
Raghuvansh 4,38 - 'Path of the carved: Kalingbhimukhoyayou' (De.Utkal
) During Raghu's Vijay Yatra, the heroes of Kaling had faced Raghu strongly.
He had a large army of yards. The Kaling King Hemangad is mentioned
in Raghuvansha 6,53 ('Athangadashlishtibhunam-bhujishya Hemangandam
name Kalingnatham) and his Gajasena is beautifully described in 6,54.
Even in Kautilya Arthashastra Kaling
elephants have been considered superior - 'Kalingnggaja: Shrestha: OriyaSchedicadushruja
(s), Dasaranashchaprantashtwa Dwipanam Madhyamata:. Saurashtraika: Panchandasteshan
Pratyavara: Smrita: Sarveshanam karmana semen javasjateshvardhte '.
Ashok Maurya by 261 BC I had won Kaling.
One lakh human beings were killed in this campaign. Seeing this terrible
massacre, Ashoka had taken up Buddhism and resolved to spend the rest
of his life in preaching religion.
Kaling (AS , p.149): Valmiki-Ramayana , a city mentioned in Ayodhya
Kand 71,16 - 'A brother-in-law, Vinte Gomtindin, Kaling-nagre chapi
prapya salvanam tada'. It is mentioned in the context of the journey
from Bharat Kekay to Ayodhya . After this, after spending one night,
he reached Ayodhya . It seems that the condition of Kaling Nagar must
have been between Gomti and Saryu river (eastern Uttar Pradesh). It
has mention of Sal forests.
Kaling (AS, p.149): In the early powers of AD, an Indian colony settled
in the Middle Jawadwip where the inhabitants of the Kaling country of
India were inhabited. Chinese people knew it by the name Holling.
The present state of Orissa was famous as Kaling in ancient times. Previously
it was a part of the empire of Mahapadmananda, the ruler of the Nand
dynasty. Magadh was separated from the empire for some time, but Ashok
won it again on the eighth year of the throne. In this war the Kalingvas
made extraordinary resistance to Ashok's army. One lakh people of Kaling
were killed, one and a half million were imprisoned and more than that,
due to the destruction of the war, later died. Seeing this destruction,
Ashoka turned to victory of religion instead of war. At a place called
Dholgiri where Ashoka's army camp and later where he had initiated Buddhism,
now a charming stupa, Temples and inscriptions exist. Kaling saw many
changes in the following centuries. Sometimes Kharavela became the ruler
of this place, sometimes it was found in the Gupta Empire. For a short
time in the 6th-7th century, the power of this place also remained in
the hands of Harshavardhana. Anantavarma Chodagung who was the chief
king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. He ruled Kaling for 71 years (1076–1147
In Bhagavat Puran :
Bhagavat Puran provides us the ancestry of Bali. Bali was a king in
line of Anu son of Yayati as under :
→ Anu → Sabhanar → Kalanar → Janamejay →
Maha Shal → Mahamanas → Titiksh → Rushadratha →
Hom → Sutapas → Bali
had six sons Ang, Banga, Kaling, Sambhu, Pundra and Odhra
in Mahabharat :
Kaling is mentioned in the Adi Parv, Bhismaparv, Sabhaparv, Banaprav
of Mahabharat so also is the conquest of Karna. Kaling King Srutayu
stated to have fought the Mahabharat war for the Kauravs.
Parv / Mahabharat Book VIII Chapter 30 mentions this tribe in derogatory
sense and advises to avoid this country.
Shalya Parv mentions names of combatants armed with diverse weapons
and clad in diverse kinds of robes and ornaments, All of them came to
the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo.
Shalya Parv in Sanskrit mentions in shloka 59 Burdak along with Kalings.
Military Campaign of Karna: Mahabharat, Book 3, Chapter 252.... Then
descending from the mountain and rushing to the east, he reduced the
Angs, and the Bangs, and the Kalings, and the Mandiks and the Magadhs.
the Karkakhands; and also included with them the Avasirs, Yodhyas, and
the Ahikshatras. Having (thus) conquered the eastern quarter Karna then
presented himself before Batsa-bhumi.
by Xuanzang in 639 AD :
Alexander Cunningham writes that In the seventh century, the capital
of the kingdom of Kie-ling-kia, or Kaling, was situated at from 1400
to 1500 li, or from 233 to 250 miles, to the south-
west of Ganjam. Both bearing and distance point either to Rajamahendri
on the Godavari river, or to Koringa on the sea coast, the first being
251 miles to the south-west of Ganjam, and the other 246 miles in the
same direction. But as the former is known to have been the capital
of the country for a long period, I presume that it must be the place
that was visited by the Chinese pilgrim. The original capital of Kaling
is said to have been Srikakola, or Chikakol, 20 miles to the south-west
of Kaling-patam. The kingdom was 5000 li, or 833 miles, in circuit.
Its boundaries are not stated ; but as it was united to the west by
Andhra, and to the south by Dhanakakata, its frontier line cannot have
extended beyond the Godavari river, on the south-west, and the Gaoliya
branch of the Indravati river on the north-west. Within these limits,
the circuit of Kaling would be about 800 miles. The principal feature
in this large tract of country is the Mahendra range of mountains, which
has preserved its name unchanged from the time of the composition of
the Mahabharat to the present day. This range is mentioned also in the
Vishnu Purana, as the source of the Rishikulya river, and as this is
the well-known name of the river of Ganjam, the Mahendra mountains can
at once be identified with the Mahendra Male range, which divides Ganjam
from the valley of the Mahanadi.
Rajamahendri was the capital of the
junior, or eastern branch of the Chalukya princes of Vengi, whose authority
extended to the frontiers of Orissa. The kingdom of Vengi was established
about A.D. 540, by the capture of the old capital of Vengipura, the
[p.517]: which still exist at Vegi,
5 miles to the north of Ellur, and 50 miles to the west-south-west of
Rajamahendri. About A.D.750, Kaling was conquered by the Raja of Vengi,
who shortly afterwards moved the seat of government to Rajamahendri.
Calingae are mentioned by Pliny, as occupying the eastern coast of India
below the Mandei and Malli, and the famous Mount Maleus. This mountain
may perhaps be identified with the high range at the head of the Rishikulya
river, in Ganjam, which is still called Mahendra Male, or the "
Mahendra mountain." To the south, the territory of the Calingae
extended as far as the promontory of Calingon and the town of Dandaguda,
or Dandagula, which is said to be 625 Roman miles, or 574 British miles,
from the mouth of the Ganges. Both the distance and the name point to
the great port-town of Coringa, as the promontory of Coringon, which
is situated on a projecting point of land, at the mouth of the Godavari
river. The town of Dandaguda, or Dandagula, I take to be the Dantapura
of the Buddhist chronicles, which, as the capital of Kaling, may with
much probability be identified with Raja Mahendri, which is only 30
miles to the north-east of Coringa. From the great similarity of the
Greek G and ?, I think it not improbable that the Greek name may have
been Dandapula, which is almost the same as Dantapura. But in this case,
the Danta, or "tooth relic," of Buddha must have been enshrined
in Kaling as early as the time of Pliny,
which is confirmed by the statement of the Buddist chronicles, that
the "left canine tooth" of Buddha was brought to Kaling immediately
after his death, where it was enshrined by the reigning sovereign, Brahmadatta.
Dantapura, also, is said to have been situated on the northern bank
of a great river, which can only be the Godavari, as the Kistna was
not in Kaling. This fact alone would be sufficient to fix the position
of Dantapura at the old capital of Rajamahendri, which is situated on
the north-eastern bank of the Godavari. The name of Mahendri is perhaps
preserved in the Pitundra Metropolis of Ptolemy, which he places close
to the Maisolos, or Godavari, that is, to the river of Masuli-patam.
still earlier name for the capital of Kaling was Sinhapura, which was
so called after its founder, Sinha-bahu, the father of Vijaya, the first
recorded sovereign of Ceylon. Its position is not indicated, but there
still exists a large town of this name on the Lalgla river, 115 miles
to the west of Ganjam, which is very probably the same place.
In the inscriptions of the Kalachuri,
or Haihaya dynasty of Chedi, the Rajas assume the titles of "Lords
of Kalanjjarapura and of Tri-Kaling. Kalanjar is the well-known hill-fort
in Bundelkhand; and Tri-Kaling, or the " Three Kalings," must
be the three kingdoms of Dhanaka, or Amaravati, on the Kistna, Andhra
or Warangol, and Kaling, or Raja Mahendri.
The name of Tri-Kaling is probably old, as Pliny mentions the Macco-Calingae
and the Gangarides-Calingae as separate peoples from the Calingae while
the Mahabharat names the Kaliagas three separate times, and each time
in conjunction with different peoples. As Tri-Kaling thus corresponds
with the great province of Telingana, it seems probable that the name
of Telingana may be only a slightly contracted form of Tri-Kalingna,
or the " Three Kalings." I am aware that the name is usually
derived from Tri-Lingga, or the "Three Phalli", of Mahadeva.
But the mention of Macco-Calingae and Gangarides-Calinga by Pliny, would
seem to show that the " Three Kalings" were known as early
as the time of Megasthenes, from whom Pliny has chiefly copied his Indian
Geography. The name must therefore be older than the Phallic worship
of Mahadeva in southern India. Kaling is three times mentioned in the
Khandagiri inscription of Aira Raja, which cannot be later than the
second century B.C., and at a still earlier date, during the lifetime
of Sakya-Muni, it was noted for its manufacture of fine muslins, and
at his death, the king of Kaling is said to have obtained one of the
teeth of Buddha, over which he built a magnificent stup.
Kaling script :
The Kaling script (ref), derived from Brahmi, was used for writing.
Among the offshoots, Kaling script had the maximum resemblance with
the parent script, Brahmi and later modified to Oriya script in the
beginning of the second millennium. This makes the Oriya Script as the
most unique and least distorted script among the Indic scripts.
This region was scene of the bloody
Kaling War fought by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka the Great of Magadha
circa 265 BCE.
rulers in Kaling :
Kharavel was a famous Jat king of Kaling during the 2nd century BCE,
who, according to the Hathigumpha inscription near Bhubaneswar, Orissa,
attacked Rajagriha in Magadh, thus inducing the Indo-Greek king Demetrius
to retreat to Mathura.
Jat clans associated with Kaling :
If Kharavel was Jat then there must be other Jat clans to assist him.
Now we find from Hathigumpha inscription some clues about other Jat
and Kaswan Jats :
It is revealed from Line-4 of the Hathigumpha inscription that Kharavela
in the second year of his reign dispatched a strong force comprising
cavalry, elephantry, infantry and chariotry to the western quarter without
caring for or bothering about Satakarni, and Asikanagara was frightened
on its reaching the river Kanhavem?a. Some scholars prefer to read Masikanagara
instead of Asikanagara and locate it in the coastal region of Andhra
article about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan
in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi
Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as
This translates that the city of 'Masiknagara' was obtained with the
help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas [Kishori Lal Faujdar:Jat Samaj Monthly Magazine,
Agra, January/February (2001) page-6]
to Sadanand Agrawal interpretation of the city as Masikanagar is not
well-supported. Kanhavem?a is commonly equated with the river Krishna
coastal flowing in Andhra Pradesh. However, Krishna lies much to the
south of Kaling, and not west as averred in the epigraph. But there
is another stream flowing to the west of Kaling in Vidarbha and known
locally at present as Kanhan which flows about 17 km northwest of Nagpur
and joins the river Vena (Wainganga), and it is the combined flow of
these two streams that is spoken as Kanhavem?a in our records. [Sadananda
Agrawal: Sri Kharavel, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack,
recent find of a sealing belonging to the Asikajanpad in course of intensive
archaeological excavations at Adam (Nagpur district) has solved also
the problem of locating Asikanagara whose king or and people became
frightful at the arrival of Kharavela's army at Kanhavem?a. In view
of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam, Prof
AM Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara
of Hathigumpha inscription. It is worth noting in the present context
that a terracotta sealing having a legend, has been discovered from
Adam, situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga, which reads
Asakajanpads. [Sadanand Agrawal: Sri Kharavela, Published by Sri Digambar
Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000]
The township of Asikanagara to the west
of Nagpur indicates the township of Asiagh or Siyak jats. This is also
supported by Thakur Deshraj that Asiagh Jats moved from Asirgarh in
Malwa to Rajasthan. This must have been migration to Rajasthan of these
people when their rule came to an end. After this period their rule
is recorded in Jangladesh by the Historians James Tod and Thakur Deshraj.
the above description we can interpret that Kaswan Jat was a chieftain
who helped Kharavela in his war expedition. Kaswan Jats must also have
moved along with Kharavela to Kaling.