lot of series of events are connected in this page readers are
advised to read till the end, carefully study each and every event
and connect the sequence of events.
Saraswat Brahmins :
Gaur Brahmins (five classes of north Bharat) are :
Saryupareen 2. Kanyakubj 3. Maithil 4. Saraswat and 5. Utkal.
from Uttarapath (Aryavart) (northern and eastern Bharat) are :
of original stay
Sindh Saraswat Brahmin
Bhramins also have Gautam Gotra.
The history of Audichya Brahmins can be traced from around the
year 950 AD. It was in the year 942 AD that Mulraj Solanki captured
the throne of Anhilpur Patan after murdering his maternal uncle
Samant Sinh Chawda, the then ruling king.
Shrimali Brahmins priests had come to Gujarat along with the Chawada
kings, from Shrimal/Bhinmal situated in the southern part of present
day state of Rajasthan. The Shrimali Brahmins were the official
priests of the kingdom. Their function included Dharma & justice.
They refused to give blessings to Mulraj and to annunciate him
as the king. No amount of persuading, cajoling, coxing or threatening
had any effect on those Brahmins. If the priests coroneted him
as a king, Mulraj was ready to perform a Rudra Yagna and also
to build Rudramahal, a huge temple of Rudra (Shiv) as atonement.
But the priests would not budge. It was also important for Mulraj
to be coroneted as a king since, if the throne was left vacant
for a long time there would be a chaos. Several Chawdas had already
started pressing their claim to the throne. The enemies of the
kingdom on the border had started preparations for conquest of
Gujarat. An immediate action was needed if the kingdom was to
be retained. But the Shrimali priests, even after explaining the
circumstances, were practically unanimous in not accepting Mulraj’s
reasons and credentials. Mulraj had to find another way to overcome
Mulraj & his minister Madhav came upon a brilliant idea. Chawda
kings had come from Shrimal & their priests were Shrimali
Brahmins. Mulraj was from Kanyakubja (Kanauj) located in the fertile
lands of Ganga & Yamuna rivers, so if priests from that area
could be persuaded to come and enthrone Mulraj as a king, perform
Rudra Yagna and stay in Gujarat as the kingdom’s priests,
two birds could be killed with a single stone. First Mulraj would
now be a legitimate king and secondly the influence of Shrimali
Brahmins would be curtailed and even nullified. It was decided
to import and lure learned & intelligent Brahmin families
in large numbers, offering them land and positions as the official
kingdom priests. They immediately set to work. Several ministers
under the leadership of Madhav were sent to the various important
cities and areas in plains of rivers Ganga & Yamuna where
there were educated & prominent Brahmins who could be persuaded
to come to Gujarat for permanent settlement. To avoid a conspiracy,
they also ensured that Brahmins came from different places and
not from a single place.
These trusted ministers are named as :
this big caravan of 1037 Brahmin families reached Siddhpur Patan,
they were royally received by the king and his people. In India
in those days, gradually Brahmins had started being known by the
place of their stay or origin, and not by the Gotras as in the
past. So this big group of Brahmins consisting of various Gotras
was officially named Audichya Brahmins. In Sanskrit, Audichya
(Udichi) means from the northern direction. The list of Gotras,
place of origin and places donated to Brahmin families by King
Mulraj Solanki after their arrival at Shri Sthal, subsequently
known as Siddhpur Patan, is as under.
Number of families Place of original stay of families
Places donated Gotra :
of original stay
Planes of rivers Ganga & Yamuna From Sihore
& Siddhpur areas: Jamdagni, Vatsas, Bhargav
(Bhrigu), Droan Dalabhya, Mandavya, Maunash, Gangayan,
Shankruti, Pulatsya, Vashishth and Upmanu.
Chyavan Ashram Total Udvahak, Parashar, Laudhkshi
Sarayu river planes Two Bhardwaj, Kaudinya, Garg
Kanyakubja Hundred Kaushik, Indrakaushik, Shantatap
from Kashi Kshetra.
Hardwar area And Audalak, Krushnaatri, Shwetaatri
Naimisharanya Seventy Atri, kaushik, Gautam,
Autathya, Krutsas and Angiras.
Kurukshetra Four Shandilya, Gaubhil, Piplad and
Pushkar area villages (Agastya,Mahendra) Not in
arrival at Siddhpur Patan, they were visited by Shrimali Brahmins
(Ex Rajya Gurus) who explained their reason for boycotting Mulraj’s
coronation. Out of 1037 families, 37 families saw the truth in
the reasoning of the Shrimali Brahmins and decided not to participate
in the king’s plans. They went in a group and intimated
their decision & reason to Mulraj. Since they went about in
a Group they were known as Tolakiya Audichya Brahmins. The rest
came to be known as Audichya Sahastra Brahmins, since they were
1000 in numbers.It might appear that only greed dominated these
1000 Brahmin families but on the other side i.e. King Mulraj Solanki’s
view, explained to Brahmins, and should also not be over looked.
A strong kingdom was imperative to maintain & stabilize Dharma
and civilization as well as trade & prosperity of the nation.
It is a well known fact that under slavery, Dharma, civilization,
prosperity decline, making the nation poor and a laughing stock.
History proved this to be true as the Solanki kingdom flourished
for nearly three hundred years. Gujarat was the last and well
fought bastion of Hindu kings, to fall against the Islamic onslaught
of India in 1297. With the conquest by Delhi Islamic hordes, the
prosperity not only of Solankis & Audichya Brahmins but of
entire Gujarat was lost. Perhaps it will not be out of place at
this juncture to explain the word Gotra which has been predominantly
used in the above history of Audichya Brahmins
Bharadwaj, Vishwamitra, Gautam, Vashishth, Kashyap, Agastya, Bhrugu
all being descendents of Angira rishi are considered to be of
the same gotra as Audichya Brahmins.
Islam and Bharat :
Sufism in Bharat :
Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years. The
presence of Sufism has been a leading entity increasing the reaches
of Islam throughout South Asia. Following the entrance of Islam
in the early 8th century, Sufi mystic traditions became more visible
during the 10th and 11th centuries of the Delhi Sultanate and
after it to the rest of India. A conglomeration of four chronologically
separate dynasties, the early Delhi Sultanate consisted of rulers
from Turkic and Afghan lands. This Persian influence flooded South
Asia with Islam, Sufi thought, syncretic values, literature, education,
and entertainment that has created an enduring impact on the presence
of Islam in India today. Sufi preachers, merchants and missionaries
also settled in coastal Bengal and Gujarat through maritime voyages
Various leaders of Sufi orders, Tariqa, chartered the first organized
activities to introduce localities to Islam through Sufism. Saint
figures and mythical stories provided solace and inspiration to
Hindu caste communities often in rural villages of India. The
Sufi teachings of divine spirituality, cosmic harmony, love, and
humanity resonated with the common people and still does so today.
The following content will take a thematic approach to discuss
a myriad of influences that helped spread Sufism and a mystical
understanding of Islam, making India a contemporary epicenter
for Sufi culture today.
of Islam :
conquered Multan, the capital of Sindh, and thereby expanded the
Islamic empire into India
Muslims entered India in 711 under the Arab commander Muhammad
bin Qasim, by conquering the regions of Sindh and Multan. This
historical achievement connected South Asia to the Muslim empire.
Simultaneously, Arab Muslims were welcomed along the Hindustani
(India) sea ports for trade and business ventures. The Muslim
culture of the caliphate began to permeate through India.
Muslims conquered Multan, the capital of Sindh, and thereby expanded
the Islamic empire into India.
This trade route linking India to the Mediterranean world and
even Southeast Asia lasted peacefully until 900.
During this period, the Abbasid Caliphate (750 – 1258) was
seated in Baghdad; this city is also the birthplace of Sufism
with notable figures such as Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hasan al Basri,
The mystic tradition of Islam gained significant ground spreading
from Baghdad (Iraq) into Persia, commonly known today as Iran
and Afghanistan. In 901, a Turkic military leader, Sabuktigin,
established an Afghan kingdom in the city of Ghaznah. His son,
Mahmud, expanded their territories into the Indian Punjab region
during 1027. The resources and riches annexed from Punjab went
into the Ghazni coffers to expand further into India's northwest
areas. During the early 11th century, the Ghaznavids brought a
wealth of scholars into India's borders, establishing the first
Persian-inspired Muslim culture succeeding prior Arab influences.
In 1151, another Central Asian group, called the Ghurids, overtook
the lands of the Ghaznavids – who did very little to monitor
their lands in India. Mu’izz al-Din Ghuri, a governor of
Turkic origin, initiated a major invasion of India, extending
the previous Ghazni territories into Delhi and Ajmer. By 1186,
northern India was indistinguishable; a combination of Baghdad's
cosmopolitan culture mixed with Persian-Turkic traditions of the
Ghaznah court accelerated Sufi intellectualism in India. Scholars,
poets, and mystics from Central Asia and Iran became integrated
within India. By 1204, the Ghurids established rule in the following
cities: Benaras (Varanasi), Kanaug, Rajasthan, and Bihar, which
introduced Muslim rule into the Bengal region.
An emphasis on translation of Arabic and Persian texts (Qu'ran,
Hadith corpus, Sufi literature) into vernacular languages helped
the momentum of Islamization in India. Particularly in rural areas,
Sufis helped Islam spread generously into prior polytheistic populations.
Subsequently, the general consensus among scholars remains that
there were never any forced mass conversions recorded during this
early history time period. Between the late 12th century and 13th
century, Sufi brotherhoods became firmly consolidated in northern
India. Sufism came to Kashmir when Sufi Saint, Shai Karman, from
the Iranian city of Karman, took up residence in a small village
called Sharakaware (baramulla). From Sharakawara, the religion
spread to other villages like Pangipora and nawshere.they took
initiative to spread the Islamic teaching among common people.
The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent
from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the
exact ethnic origin is uncertain, The dynasty converted to Sunni
Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid
emperor Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigned
1011–1035) was the first Muslim king of the Ghurid dynasty
to construct mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.
The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186, when Sultan
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital
of Lahore. At their zenith, the Ghurid empire encompassed Khorasan
in the west and reached northern India as far as Bengal in the
east. Their first capital was Firozkoh in Mandesh, Ghor, which
was later replaced by Herat, and finally Ghazni. Lahore was used
as an additional capital in the late Ghurid period, especially
during winters. The Ghurids were patrons of Persian culture and
The Ghurids were succeeded in Khorasan and Persia by the Khwarazmian
dynasty, and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi
The period of 1206 – 1526 is labeled as the Delhi Sultanate
of Raftaar. This time frame consists of five separate dynasties
that ruled territorial parts of India: the Mamluk or slave, Khaljis,
Tughlaq, Sayyid, and Lodi dynasty. In history, the Delhi Sultanate
is usually given marginal attention compared to the succeeding
Mughal Dynasty. At its peak, the Delhi Sultanate controlled all
of North India, Afghan frontier, and Bengal. The security of their
lands protected India from the Mongol Conquests terrorizing the
rest of Asia between 1206 and 1294. The Mongols also succeeded
in destroying Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, proving
that this reign of violence was no minor feat. [according to whom?]
When the Mongol invasion penetrated Central Asia, fleeing refugees
chose India as a safe destination. This historical move can be
deemed [by whom?] a significant catalyst of Sufi thought in India.
Scholars, students, artisans, and common people arrived into the
protection of Mamluk rulers, the first dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate.
Soon the court had an immense influx of diverse cultures, religiosity,
and literature from Persia and Central Asia; Sufism was the main
ingredient in all mediums. During this medieval period, Sufism
spread through various regions, expanding to the Deccan plateau
with the succession of the Tughlaq dynasty of 1290 – 1388.
During this time, the Muslim rulers of the Sultanate dynasties
were not necessarily of orthodox Islam; yet, they were still deemed
powerful. Advisors of the dynastic sultans included Muslim religious
scholars (ulama) and notably, Muslim mystics (mashai’kh).
Although practicing Sufis rarely had political aspirations, the
declining ethical reign of the Sayyid and Lodi dynasty (1414 –
1517) required renewed leadership.
Forced Conversion Of Kashmiri Pandits :
ZUL QADIR KHAN @ DULUCH, a Turkish Tartar reigned Kashmir for
eight months In 1320 AD and resorted to loot and plunder of Hindus
resulting in the death of many. He took 20,000 Kashmiris (then
all hindus), including women and children, for sale as slaves
in Turkistan but the whole lot perished in cold snow while crossing
the ‘Devsar pass’ _ a place referred to as ‘BATA
SAGAN’(Brahamans death oven). Jonaraja, a Kashmiri historian
described the period as PRALAYA wherein rivers and streams turned
red with human blood. Later, RINCHEN, a Bhuddist fugitive from
Ladakh, seized power after deceitfully murdering Ram Chandra,
the self proclaimed king. He was trickly converted by Bulbul Shah,
another refugee from Turkistan, who was like RINCHEN granted refuge
by king Sahdeva. The zealot convert assumed the name of Sadruddin
and used brutal vigour and force for mass conversion. His campaign
was incited, aided and abetted by Bulbul Shah, who advised the
king to persecute and tyrannise the resistant hindus with all
fair and foul means, like compulsion, taxation, unjust laws, use
of sword and forcible inter-marriages. Rinchen’s rule lasted
for brief period till his death in 1323 AD.
Second Migration :
During the rule of Sultan Qutub-ud-din (1373-89 AD), about 700
sayyids and a large number of sufi saints and Islamic scholars,
accompanied by Ali Hamdani came to Kashmir from Persia and Central
Asia, and successfully drew wedge between the majority hindus
and minority converts to Islam. He prescribed model of hatred,
distrust, intolerance and bigotry against Kashmiri hindus. Under
dictates of Sayyids, Qutub-ud-din converted 37,000 hindus to Islam.
Sultan Sikander (1389-1413 AD) notoriously known as SIKANDER BUT
SHIKANI spread barbarim further on and issued an atrocious order,
under the influence of Baihaqi Sayyids,led by Mohammad Hamdani
son of Ali Hamdani, forbidding hindus from applying ‘tilak’
on their forehead and launched relentless campaign for conversion
to Islam urged the hindus to opt for conversion or exile or death.
The cleric urged him to wipe out infidelity root and brand. The
two reinfoced Malik Saifuddin; a rabid neo- convert originally
named, Suha Bhatta; who was appointed Chief Minister, to unleash
a reign of terror against those resisting conversion. He threw
into Dal Lake all the sacred books of the hindus. Seven maunds
of sacred thread of the murdered hindus were also burnt. Many
hindus migrated to various places in India ( after reaching KISHTWAR
and BHADERWAH via Simthan pass ) through BHATTA WATH( present
day Batote), path of the Bhattas, which Kashmiri hindus were then
popularly referred to as. From this period onwards the predominance
of Muslim population in the Kashmir Valley began.
This was, however, followed by a virtual golden period of peace,
harmony and dignity during the rule of SULTAN ZAIN-UL-ABDIN @
BADSHAH (1420-70 AD), who was most tolerant and benevolent. Historian
SRIVARA described the period “like the cooling sandal paste
after the heat of summer in a desert had departed”. He allowed
rebuilding of demolished temples , removed all restrictions against
hindus, banned cow slaughter and killing of fish in ponds considered
sacred by hindus. Above all BADSHAH recalled Hindus who had fled
the Valley due to persecution and assigned them responsible positions
on merit. He also got Hindu shastras as also Mahabharta translated
Third Migration :
CHAKS, with well built body and wild nature, came to Valley from
Dardistan area of Gilgit-Hunza region, and when SHAH MIR, a refugee
forced to flee from SWAT, founded his Sultanate (1339-42 AD),
he recruited Chaks in his army thus affording them a place of
prominence. CHAKS were Shias by faith and adopted policy of conversion
by coercion, loot, plunder and butchering of Kashmiri hindus.
When Sultan Fateh Shah proclaimed himself as Ruler (1506-16 AD),
he became a tool in the hands of intriguing SHAMS CHAK and his
three friends, namely, Nusrat Raina, Sarhang Raina and Moosa Raina.
Later Moosa Raina took over as Chief Minister from Shams Chak
, and his Shia mentor named, Shams-ud-din Iraqi, hailing from
Talish on the Caspian sea- an Islamic propagator and converter
of non-believers- opened floodgates of repression, terror and
cruelty with demolition of temples to erect mosques on their foundations.
24,000 Brahamans were converted to Islam during this period. In
1517 AD, Mohammad Shah appointed GHAZI CHAK, a Shia, as Chief
Minister, who later founded the CHAK dynasty Rule in 1561 AD.
He also gave no quarter and no time for recovery to the distressed
Kashmiri hindus. He used to get 900 hindus beheaded every day
for not having accepted Islam. He also ordered slaughter of 1,000
cows, whom hindus held as sacred, to wreck vengeance and shock
them into accepting Islam. Hindus wearing sacred thread had to
pay annual tax to CHAK Rulers. YAQUB CHAK, a rank communalist,
even got hindus hauled up in their houses to roast them alive.
Innumerable hindus left their homes and hearths and while fleeing
a barrage of spiteful abuse was let loose to prevent their return
to the land of their heritage.
This was followed by another spell of respite for hindus when
Kashmir became a province of Mughal Empire. Emperor AKBER (1556-1605
AD) visited Valley thrice in 1589, 1598 and1601 AD. He was admittedly
highly tolerant and refrained from falling into the net of religious
zeal. He never resoted to the policy of persecution and discrimination
against hindus. Many hindus who had fled to safer places outside
to save their lives, honour and dignity found conditions in their
home land highly conducive for honourable return, of course shocked,
to find their homes looted and plundered during the period of
Fourth Migration :
JAHANGIR’S (1605-27 AD) sectarian predilection and prejudices
were clearly pronounced resulting in his shuffling his stances
in dealing with Kashmiri hindus, who were forced to marry their
daughters to Mughal Officers and Subedars. He disapproved and
opposed matrimonial relations between Hindus and Muslims and declared
that while a Hindu was debarred by law to marry a Muslim woman,
the Muslims had all the license to marry a Hindu woman. ITQUAD
KHAN, the Mughal Sardar further sullied Jahangir’s image
by forcing the Hindus at gun point to get converted to Islam.
He also tortured them by levying taxes. SHAH JEHAN (1627-58 AD)
also contributed his bit by desecrating and demolishing a number
of temples. AURANGZEB’S (1658-1707 AD) puritanical disposition
did not go well with Kashmir. He visited the Valley once in 1665
AD. He appointed 14 atrocious Subedars who persued policy of Islamization.
Notable among them was IFTEKHAR KHAN (1671-75 AD) for his cruelity
of all sorts to leave Kashmiri Hindus no alternative but to embrace
Islam or quit the homeland. A delegation of 500 Kashmiri Hindus
led by KRIPA RAM, a learned person, called on SHRI GURU TEG BAHADUR
to narrate the woeful tales of diabolical misrule of AURANGZEB
patronized IFTEKHAR KHAN. The great saint from Punjab went to
Delhi for redressal of Kashmiri Hindus grievances and got martyred
by cunning AURANGZEB in 1675. Hence due to continued persecution
including killings and desecration of temples the exodus continued
unabated. Justice Jia Lal Kilam records in his ‘History
of the Kashmiri Pandits’ (with due reference to the earlier
histories written by Muslim historians like Fauq, Hassan and Azim
Khan – the latter being reportedly an eye-witness of the
episode) that “Muhatta Khan (who appeared on the scene towards
the end of Mughal Rule) was credited with a deep knowledge of
Islamic laws , somehow or other found fault with the policy followed
by the Naib Subedar Mir Ahmed Khan towards the hindus and made
it plain that ascendency of the hindus was intolerable from every
point of view. He laid a prayer before the Subedar to the following
effect that No Hindu should ride a horse, nor should he wear a
shoe; they should not wear Jama ( an article of Mughal dress);
they should not bear arms; they should not visit any garden; they
should not have Tilak mark on their foreheads; and their children
should not receive any education. The Subedar refused to agree
to these proposals. But Muhatta Khan who was of a sterner stuff
could not take this lying down and he took the law into his own
hands and established his seat in a mosque wherefrom he issued
orders in fucrtherance of his proposals. He gained huge following
and his fans were deputed to harass and humiliate the Hindus in
general. He issued an edict that whenever a Hindu is seen riding
a horse, he should be pulled down, Tilak mark should be erased
from his forehead and his turban and shoes should be snatched
away. Besides, orders were issued that no Hindu should attend
any school or visit a garden, nor should he wear decent dress
and so on.This was a signal for a general rising and an orgy of
loot, plunder and murder was let loose. Muhatta Khan soon over-powered
the Subedar and assumed all powers of the State. Having done so,
he ordered a systematic attack upon the Hindu areas. Hundreds
of them were killed and maimed and most of them were looted and
their houses burnt”.
Fifth Migration :
The AFGHAN RULE (1753-1820 AD) was ruthless and atrocious. The
period under two upstarts, namely, LAL KHAN KHATTAK and FAQIR
ULLAH was extremely tyrannical KHATTAK was given to insane rage
and sometimes got the entire family killed on mere suspicion.
He got hundreds of Hindus killed because he suspected his father
had been killed at the instance of a Kashmiri Hindu noble, KAILASH
DHAR, who was killed in broad day light in the court of the Shia
Governor, AMIR KHAN JAWANSHER, at the instane of FAZAL KANTH,
the diabolical son of FAQIR ULLAH, who was then Chief Minister.
The episode left hindus alarmed, panicked, helpless and desperate
resulting in their flight to safe shelters in Poonch and Kabul.
The misrule touched lowest ebb under the Governorship of HAJI
KARIM DAD KHAN and ASAD KHAN. For minor offences prople were tied
in pairs and thrown into river.Women were sexually abused. The
despotic ASAD KHAN got the belly of an outside surgeon cut, for
failure to set right his eye, to verify his threat. ASAD assumed
the title of NADIR SHAH II in 1784 AD. ATTA MOHD, another Afghan
Governor, persecuted Hindus relentlessly and earned notoriety
for his insatiable lust for beautiful Kashmiri women. Apprehensive
Hindu parents got the good looks of their daughters sullied to
evade attention of Governor’s agents. Anand Kaul Bamzie
records in his book ‘The Kashmiri Pandit’, JABBAR
KHAN, the last Afghan Governor who got killed at Shopian on july15,
1819 AD, was once told by someone that it was a common notion
among the Pandits that snow falls invariably at the Shivratri
night (13th day of the dark fortnight Phagun). To test this, he
ordered that the Pandits should not observe this festival in Phagun
(February-March) but in Har (June-July). Accordingly, it had to
be observed on the corresponding night in the latter months. It
so happened that even on that night flakes of snow, preceded by
a heavy rainfall which had rendered the atmosphere very cold,
fell. The bard then, mocking at him sang : ‘Wuchhton Yi
Jabbar Jandah Haras ti karun vandah’ (Look at Jabbar, the
wretch, even Har he turned into winter)”.
The capture of Kashmir by Sikhs marked the deliverance of the
Kashmiri Hindus from the barbarous Afghan Governors. Pt BIRBAL
DHAR’s political maturity paved the way for Maharaja RANJIT
SINGH to establish SIKH RULE (1820-46 AD) in the Valley. The sounds
of bells again started emanating from the temples. The Sikh rule
was an era of peace for all. Some stray instances of harshness
by the Sikh rulers apart, they were not cunning, cruel and fanatic
religious zealots as their Muslim predecessors. Young husband;
a British Political Resident in Kashmir, who had travelled extensively
in Kashmir and other areas around the Himalayas as also Central
Asia/China; observed “ The Sikhs were no so barbarically
cruel as the Afghans’ but they were hard and rough masters”.
Sixth Migration :
The last Governor of the Sikh Rule, IMAM-UD-DIN was made to surrender
the possession of Kashmir to Raja GULAB SINGH in pursuance of
the Treaty of Amritsar signed on March 16, 1846 AD. The Dogra
dynasty lasted for a little over a century and saw four Maharajas,
namely, GULAB SINGH (!846-57), RANBIR SINGH (1857-85), PARTAP
SINGH (1885-1925) and HARI SINGH (1925-1952). The J&K State
acceded to India on October 26, 1947, but the hereditary rule
of the Dogras was abolished in 1952. In the wakw of the British
Government’s pervasive and decisive intervention in the
affairs of the State the period could well be called the Dogra-British
rule rather than the Dogra rule alone. The British pursued their
known policy of divide and rule and exploited the jealousy among
the newly educated Muslim youth against the well educated Kashmiri
Pandits to carve out a situation to set stage for desperate Muslim
youth to enact scenes of violent political agitation. The KPs
became a eyesore for the simple reason of their outshining others.
SHEIKH ABDULLAH, then the most prominent leader of the Muslim
Reading Room Group, minced no words to voice resentment and made
provocative speeches in mosques resulting in Kashmiri Muslims
repeating history of loot, arson and murder on July 13, 1931,
a black day for Kashmiri Pandits, ironically celebrated by the
local government and the Muslims as martyrs’ day even now.
The frenzied mob went beserk and the Maharaja’s administration
failed to protect the terrorized KPs, who were taken unawares.Thousands
of KPs had to flee the Valley for life.
Seventh Migration :
The post independence period witnessed yet another spell of migration
by the hapless KPs from Northern, Northwestern and Northeastern
parts of Kashmir; to capital city of Srinagar in the wake of Pak
raiders invasion in October, 1947 aided and abetted by the State
of Pakistan; where local zealots joined hands with hordes of savages
from NWFP, except Srinagar and South Kashmir, behaving worse that
their Afghan ancestors.
Innumerable prominent KPs had to bid unwilling adieu to their
land of birth due to ever dwindling and waning chances of livelihood
despite merit, abolition of zamindari system that reduced thousands
of KP owners as paupers owing to lack of due compensation as also
discrimination of KP youth in matters of admission to higher education
and technical /professional institutions. The process of slow
exodus was further aggravated by the events like Relic agitation
(1963) and forcible abduction and conversion of a hindu girl (1967).
Eighth Migration :
When G M SHAH @ GUL SHAH snatched political power from his estranged
brother-in-law in 1984 he masterminded the construction of a mosque
within the premises of New Secretariat at Jammu and provoked muslims
in Srinagar (February 20, 1986) to communalise the situation to
rebut the criticism of the valiant people of Jammu. He deliberately
raised the bogey of ‘Islam Khatre Mein Hai’ that led
to unleashing spree of desecration of hindus’ places of
worship. MUFTI SYED, then President of the local Congress unit,
patronized a crude and confirmed fundamentalist theologist, QAZI
NISSAR of Soth Kashmir to spearhead a movement that led to level
raising of the temples in the far and wide of Southern Kashmir
and the consequent fear psychosis among KPs. This episode of 1986
made two things crystal clear that Kashmir was for muslims only
and the slogan of Kashmiriat ( secularism with reference to Kashmir)
was a farce. Looked from the historical perspective these events
formed a link in the chain of persecution of of KPs over centuries
in the past at the hands of muslims. Numerous KP families disposed
of their immoveable properties and left the Valley for good.
Ninth Migration :
The happenings of the midnight of January 19/20, 1990 dealt the
blow responsible for the current spell of forcible en masse migration
of the Kashmiri Pandit community. This was followed by the ruthless
public killings of over 300 people belonging to the miniscule
minority throwin the whole community in a state of shock and continued
mourning. This started with the exchange of five dreaded militants
to secure release of Rubia; daughter of then Union Home Minister
MUFTI SYED, whose secular and nationalist credentials were already
suspect in the eyes of KPs; from the clutches of her kidnappers.
Pakistan establishment was pursuing the policy of OP-TOPAC pronounced
by then Pak President, Gen. ZIA-UL_HAQ in a Top Secret meeting
at Islamabad in April, 1988. The indoctrinated Muslim youth were
motivated to rally also muslims under the religious theme of Jehad
to fight the enemy. The ‘holy’ war supposed to be
against the infidels ruling Kashmir from New Delhi but a beginning
was desired to be made with hitting the KPs labeling them as agents
of India and branding them as traitors who had allegedly always
stabbed local muslims in the back. As aptly observed by Prof K
L Bhan in his book ‘Paradise Lost’, “No saner
voice rose among the enlightened literate Kashmiri muslims, who
sealed their lips, curbed their conscience and smothered their
soul in astonishingly mysterious silence”.
The ancestors of most Kashmiri Muslims were probably Kashmiri
Pandits (Brahmins). Because genetic research shows that Kashmiri
Muslims have an exactly 0 genetic distance from ethnic Kashmiri
Pandits. They are also very similar to Brahmins and other upper
castes from Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
Karbala and Hussaini Brahmin :
Hussaini Brahmin is a Mohyal community with links to both Hinduism
and Islam. They are spread across Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan;
Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Delhi and other parts of India, and also
in Arabia. Citing source from history of the Muhiyals, published
in 1911 CE it is disclosed that about 1400 Brahmins had been living
in Baghdad when the event of Karbala took place.
During the war of Karbala between Nabi Mohammad Saheb's grandson
Imam Husain and Yazid. When Imam Husian was cornered in Karbala
near Daria-E-Furat now known as Hindiyah he wrote letter to his
child hood friend Habib and another letter was written to A Hindu
letter was written by Imam Husain's son Ali Ibn-E-Husain to his
cousin brother Samudragupt the King of Bharat. This many sound
strange that how can a Muslim be a Hindu's cousin brother.
1400 Years back the king of Iran was of Parsi religion had 2 daughters
Meher Bano and Shaher Bano.
Bano was married to King Chandragupt and Meher Bano's name was
renamed to Chandralekha. After few years Chandralekha's younger
sister Shaher Bano was married to Imam Husain. Chandralekha and
Chandragupt had a son called Samudragupt and was the King of Bharat
when he got letter from his cousin brother Ali Ibn-E-Husain.
Samudragupt swiftly arranged a group of brave soldiers and sent
them to Karbala. The commander of that army was Rehab Dutt who
was also a Mohyal Brahman. It is said that when Rehab Dutt reached
Karbala it was too later and Imam Husain was martyred.
avenge death of Imam Husain's death Rehab Dutt's army joined hands
with a Arab named Janab-E-Mukhtar who was admirer of Imam Husain
and they fought a memorable battle with the army of Yazid.
place where Rehab Dutt's army stayed in Karbala is known as Dayar-E-Hind
also known as Hindiyah and even at present times this place is
known as Hindiyah in Iraq.
of these Brahmins got martyred in Karbala, some stayed in Karbala
and some returned back to Bharat. History remembers these Brahmin's
as Husaini Brahmins.