A lot of series of events are connected in this page readers are advised to read till the end, carefully study each and every event and connect the sequence of events.


The Saraswat Brahmins :


Panch Gaur Brahmins (five classes of north Bharat) are :


1. Saryupareen 2. Kanyakubj 3. Maithil 4. Saraswat and 5. Utkal.


Saraswat from Uttarapath (Aryavart) (northern and eastern Bharat) are :

Places of original stay

Kashmiri Pandits

Mohyal Brahmins
Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins
Gouda Saraswat Brahmins
5. Punjabi Saraswat Brahmins
6. Rajasthan Saraswat Brahmins
7. Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmin
8. Nasarpuri Sindh Saraswat Brahmin
Brahmbhatt Brahmin

Saraswat Bhramins also have Gautam Gotra.


Audichya Brahmins :

The history of Audichya Brahmins can be traced from around the year 950 AD. It was in the year 942 AD that Mulraj Solanki captured the throne of Anhilpur Patan after murdering his maternal uncle Samant Sinh Chawda, the then ruling king.

Shrimali Brahmins priests had come to Gujarat along with the Chawada kings, from Shrimal/Bhinmal situated in the southern part of present day state of Rajasthan. The Shrimali Brahmins were the official priests of the kingdom. Their function included Dharma & justice. They refused to give blessings to Mulraj and to annunciate him as the king. No amount of persuading, cajoling, coxing or threatening had any effect on those Brahmins. If the priests coroneted him as a king, Mulraj was ready to perform a Rudra Yagna and also to build Rudramahal, a huge temple of Rudra (Shiv) as atonement. But the priests would not budge. It was also important for Mulraj to be coroneted as a king since, if the throne was left vacant for a long time there would be a chaos. Several Chawdas had already started pressing their claim to the throne. The enemies of the kingdom on the border had started preparations for conquest of Gujarat. An immediate action was needed if the kingdom was to be retained. But the Shrimali priests, even after explaining the circumstances, were practically unanimous in not accepting Mulraj’s reasons and credentials. Mulraj had to find another way to overcome this situation.

Mulraj & his minister Madhav came upon a brilliant idea. Chawda kings had come from Shrimal & their priests were Shrimali Brahmins. Mulraj was from Kanyakubja (Kanauj) located in the fertile lands of Ganga & Yamuna rivers, so if priests from that area could be persuaded to come and enthrone Mulraj as a king, perform Rudra Yagna and stay in Gujarat as the kingdom’s priests, two birds could be killed with a single stone. First Mulraj would now be a legitimate king and secondly the influence of Shrimali Brahmins would be curtailed and even nullified. It was decided to import and lure learned & intelligent Brahmin families in large numbers, offering them land and positions as the official kingdom priests. They immediately set to work. Several ministers under the leadership of Madhav were sent to the various important cities and areas in plains of rivers Ganga & Yamuna where there were educated & prominent Brahmins who could be persuaded to come to Gujarat for permanent settlement. To avoid a conspiracy, they also ensured that Brahmins came from different places and not from a single place.

These trusted ministers are named as :

Trusted Ministers


5. Vakranetra
6. Mahanand
7. Jayant
8. Vijay
9. Jaisen
10. Jaidhwaj
11. Nadishen
12. Jai
13. Halketan

When this big caravan of 1037 Brahmin families reached Siddhpur Patan, they were royally received by the king and his people. In India in those days, gradually Brahmins had started being known by the place of their stay or origin, and not by the Gotras as in the past. So this big group of Brahmins consisting of various Gotras was officially named Audichya Brahmins. In Sanskrit, Audichya (Udichi) means from the northern direction. The list of Gotras, place of origin and places donated to Brahmin families by King Mulraj Solanki after their arrival at Shri Sthal, subsequently known as Siddhpur Patan, is as under.

Number of families Place of original stay of families Places donated Gotra :

Places of original stay

105 Planes of rivers Ganga & Yamuna From Sihore & Siddhpur areas: Jamdagni, Vatsas, Bhargav (Bhrigu), Droan Dalabhya, Mandavya, Maunash, Gangayan, Shankruti, Pulatsya, Vashishth and Upmanu.

100 Chyavan Ashram Total Udvahak, Parashar, Laudhkshi and Kashyap.
100 Sarayu river planes Two Bhardwaj, Kaudinya, Garg and Vishvamitra.
100 Kanyakubja Hundred Kaushik, Indrakaushik, Shantatap and Atri.
100 from Kashi Kshetra.
6. 100 Hardwar area And Audalak, Krushnaatri, Shwetaatri and Chandraatri.
7. 100 Naimisharanya Seventy Atri, kaushik, Gautam, Autathya, Krutsas and Angiras.
8. 200 Kurukshetra Four Shandilya, Gaubhil, Piplad and Agastya.
132 Pushkar area villages (Agastya,Mahendra) Not in Audichyas.

On arrival at Siddhpur Patan, they were visited by Shrimali Brahmins (Ex Rajya Gurus) who explained their reason for boycotting Mulraj’s coronation. Out of 1037 families, 37 families saw the truth in the reasoning of the Shrimali Brahmins and decided not to participate in the king’s plans. They went in a group and intimated their decision & reason to Mulraj. Since they went about in a Group they were known as Tolakiya Audichya Brahmins. The rest came to be known as Audichya Sahastra Brahmins, since they were 1000 in numbers.It might appear that only greed dominated these 1000 Brahmin families but on the other side i.e. King Mulraj Solanki’s view, explained to Brahmins, and should also not be over looked. A strong kingdom was imperative to maintain & stabilize Dharma and civilization as well as trade & prosperity of the nation. It is a well known fact that under slavery, Dharma, civilization, prosperity decline, making the nation poor and a laughing stock. History proved this to be true as the Solanki kingdom flourished for nearly three hundred years. Gujarat was the last and well fought bastion of Hindu kings, to fall against the Islamic onslaught of India in 1297. With the conquest by Delhi Islamic hordes, the prosperity not only of Solankis & Audichya Brahmins but of entire Gujarat was lost. Perhaps it will not be out of place at this juncture to explain the word Gotra which has been predominantly used in the above history of Audichya Brahmins


Jamdagni, Bharadwaj, Vishwamitra, Gautam, Vashishth, Kashyap, Agastya, Bhrugu all being descendents of Angira rishi are considered to be of the same gotra as Audichya Brahmins.


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Islam and Bharat :

Sufism in Bharat :

Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years. The presence of Sufism has been a leading entity increasing the reaches of Islam throughout South Asia. Following the entrance of Islam in the early 8th century, Sufi mystic traditions became more visible during the 10th and 11th centuries of the Delhi Sultanate and after it to the rest of India. A conglomeration of four chronologically separate dynasties, the early Delhi Sultanate consisted of rulers from Turkic and Afghan lands. This Persian influence flooded South Asia with Islam, Sufi thought, syncretic values, literature, education, and entertainment that has created an enduring impact on the presence of Islam in India today. Sufi preachers, merchants and missionaries also settled in coastal Bengal and Gujarat through maritime voyages and trade.

Various leaders of Sufi orders, Tariqa, chartered the first organized activities to introduce localities to Islam through Sufism. Saint figures and mythical stories provided solace and inspiration to Hindu caste communities often in rural villages of India. The Sufi teachings of divine spirituality, cosmic harmony, love, and humanity resonated with the common people and still does so today. The following content will take a thematic approach to discuss a myriad of influences that helped spread Sufism and a mystical understanding of Islam, making India a contemporary epicenter for Sufi culture today.


Influence of Islam :


Muslims conquered Multan, the capital of Sindh, and thereby expanded the Islamic empire into India


Muslims entered India in 711 under the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim, by conquering the regions of Sindh and Multan. This historical achievement connected South Asia to the Muslim empire. Simultaneously, Arab Muslims were welcomed along the Hindustani (India) sea ports for trade and business ventures. The Muslim culture of the caliphate began to permeate through India.

Muslims conquered Multan, the capital of Sindh, and thereby expanded the Islamic empire into India.

This trade route linking India to the Mediterranean world and even Southeast Asia lasted peacefully until 900.

During this period, the Abbasid Caliphate (750 – 1258) was seated in Baghdad; this city is also the birthplace of Sufism with notable figures such as Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hasan al Basri, and Rabiah.

The mystic tradition of Islam gained significant ground spreading from Baghdad (Iraq) into Persia, commonly known today as Iran and Afghanistan. In 901, a Turkic military leader, Sabuktigin, established an Afghan kingdom in the city of Ghaznah. His son, Mahmud, expanded their territories into the Indian Punjab region during 1027. The resources and riches annexed from Punjab went into the Ghazni coffers to expand further into India's northwest areas. During the early 11th century, the Ghaznavids brought a wealth of scholars into India's borders, establishing the first Persian-inspired Muslim culture succeeding prior Arab influences.

In 1151, another Central Asian group, called the Ghurids, overtook the lands of the Ghaznavids – who did very little to monitor their lands in India. Mu’izz al-Din Ghuri, a governor of Turkic origin, initiated a major invasion of India, extending the previous Ghazni territories into Delhi and Ajmer. By 1186, northern India was indistinguishable; a combination of Baghdad's cosmopolitan culture mixed with Persian-Turkic traditions of the Ghaznah court accelerated Sufi intellectualism in India. Scholars, poets, and mystics from Central Asia and Iran became integrated within India. By 1204, the Ghurids established rule in the following cities: Benaras (Varanasi), Kanaug, Rajasthan, and Bihar, which introduced Muslim rule into the Bengal region.

An emphasis on translation of Arabic and Persian texts (Qu'ran, Hadith corpus, Sufi literature) into vernacular languages helped the momentum of Islamization in India. Particularly in rural areas, Sufis helped Islam spread generously into prior polytheistic populations. Subsequently, the general consensus among scholars remains that there were never any forced mass conversions recorded during this early history time period. Between the late 12th century and 13th century, Sufi brotherhoods became firmly consolidated in northern India. Sufism came to Kashmir when Sufi Saint, Shai Karman, from the Iranian city of Karman, took up residence in a small village called Sharakaware (baramulla). From Sharakawara, the religion spread to other villages like Pangipora and nawshere.they took initiative to spread the Islamic teaching among common people.


Ghurid Dynasty :

The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid emperor Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigned 1011–1035) was the first Muslim king of the Ghurid dynasty to construct mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.

The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186, when Sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore. At their zenith, the Ghurid empire encompassed Khorasan in the west and reached northern India as far as Bengal in the east. Their first capital was Firozkoh in Mandesh, Ghor, which was later replaced by Herat, and finally Ghazni. Lahore was used as an additional capital in the late Ghurid period, especially during winters. The Ghurids were patrons of Persian culture and heritage.

The Ghurids were succeeded in Khorasan and Persia by the Khwarazmian dynasty, and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.


Delhi Sultanate :

The period of 1206 – 1526 is labeled as the Delhi Sultanate of Raftaar. This time frame consists of five separate dynasties that ruled territorial parts of India: the Mamluk or slave, Khaljis, Tughlaq, Sayyid, and Lodi dynasty. In history, the Delhi Sultanate is usually given marginal attention compared to the succeeding Mughal Dynasty. At its peak, the Delhi Sultanate controlled all of North India, Afghan frontier, and Bengal. The security of their lands protected India from the Mongol Conquests terrorizing the rest of Asia between 1206 and 1294. The Mongols also succeeded in destroying Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, proving that this reign of violence was no minor feat. [according to whom?] When the Mongol invasion penetrated Central Asia, fleeing refugees chose India as a safe destination. This historical move can be deemed [by whom?] a significant catalyst of Sufi thought in India. Scholars, students, artisans, and common people arrived into the protection of Mamluk rulers, the first dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate. Soon the court had an immense influx of diverse cultures, religiosity, and literature from Persia and Central Asia; Sufism was the main ingredient in all mediums. During this medieval period, Sufism spread through various regions, expanding to the Deccan plateau with the succession of the Tughlaq dynasty of 1290 – 1388. During this time, the Muslim rulers of the Sultanate dynasties were not necessarily of orthodox Islam; yet, they were still deemed powerful. Advisors of the dynastic sultans included Muslim religious scholars (ulama) and notably, Muslim mystics (mashai’kh). Although practicing Sufis rarely had political aspirations, the declining ethical reign of the Sayyid and Lodi dynasty (1414 – 1517) required renewed leadership.

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Forced Conversion Of Kashmiri Pandits :


First Migration :

ZUL QADIR KHAN @ DULUCH, a Turkish Tartar reigned Kashmir for eight months In 1320 AD and resorted to loot and plunder of Hindus resulting in the death of many. He took 20,000 Kashmiris (then all hindus), including women and children, for sale as slaves in Turkistan but the whole lot perished in cold snow while crossing the ‘Devsar pass’ _ a place referred to as ‘BATA SAGAN’(Brahamans death oven). Jonaraja, a Kashmiri historian described the period as PRALAYA wherein rivers and streams turned red with human blood. Later, RINCHEN, a Bhuddist fugitive from Ladakh, seized power after deceitfully murdering Ram Chandra, the self proclaimed king. He was trickly converted by Bulbul Shah, another refugee from Turkistan, who was like RINCHEN granted refuge by king Sahdeva. The zealot convert assumed the name of Sadruddin and used brutal vigour and force for mass conversion. His campaign was incited, aided and abetted by Bulbul Shah, who advised the king to persecute and tyrannise the resistant hindus with all fair and foul means, like compulsion, taxation, unjust laws, use of sword and forcible inter-marriages. Rinchen’s rule lasted for brief period till his death in 1323 AD.

Second Migration :

During the rule of Sultan Qutub-ud-din (1373-89 AD), about 700 sayyids and a large number of sufi saints and Islamic scholars, accompanied by Ali Hamdani came to Kashmir from Persia and Central Asia, and successfully drew wedge between the majority hindus and minority converts to Islam. He prescribed model of hatred, distrust, intolerance and bigotry against Kashmiri hindus. Under dictates of Sayyids, Qutub-ud-din converted 37,000 hindus to Islam. Sultan Sikander (1389-1413 AD) notoriously known as SIKANDER BUT SHIKANI spread barbarim further on and issued an atrocious order, under the influence of Baihaqi Sayyids,led by Mohammad Hamdani son of Ali Hamdani, forbidding hindus from applying ‘tilak’ on their forehead and launched relentless campaign for conversion to Islam urged the hindus to opt for conversion or exile or death. The cleric urged him to wipe out infidelity root and brand. The two reinfoced Malik Saifuddin; a rabid neo- convert originally named, Suha Bhatta; who was appointed Chief Minister, to unleash a reign of terror against those resisting conversion. He threw into Dal Lake all the sacred books of the hindus. Seven maunds of sacred thread of the murdered hindus were also burnt. Many hindus migrated to various places in India ( after reaching KISHTWAR and BHADERWAH via Simthan pass ) through BHATTA WATH( present day Batote), path of the Bhattas, which Kashmiri hindus were then popularly referred to as. From this period onwards the predominance of Muslim population in the Kashmir Valley began.

This was, however, followed by a virtual golden period of peace, harmony and dignity during the rule of SULTAN ZAIN-UL-ABDIN @ BADSHAH (1420-70 AD), who was most tolerant and benevolent. Historian SRIVARA described the period “like the cooling sandal paste after the heat of summer in a desert had departed”. He allowed rebuilding of demolished temples , removed all restrictions against hindus, banned cow slaughter and killing of fish in ponds considered sacred by hindus. Above all BADSHAH recalled Hindus who had fled the Valley due to persecution and assigned them responsible positions on merit. He also got Hindu shastras as also Mahabharta translated into Persian.

Third Migration :

CHAKS, with well built body and wild nature, came to Valley from Dardistan area of Gilgit-Hunza region, and when SHAH MIR, a refugee forced to flee from SWAT, founded his Sultanate (1339-42 AD), he recruited Chaks in his army thus affording them a place of prominence. CHAKS were Shias by faith and adopted policy of conversion by coercion, loot, plunder and butchering of Kashmiri hindus. When Sultan Fateh Shah proclaimed himself as Ruler (1506-16 AD), he became a tool in the hands of intriguing SHAMS CHAK and his three friends, namely, Nusrat Raina, Sarhang Raina and Moosa Raina. Later Moosa Raina took over as Chief Minister from Shams Chak , and his Shia mentor named, Shams-ud-din Iraqi, hailing from Talish on the Caspian sea- an Islamic propagator and converter of non-believers- opened floodgates of repression, terror and cruelty with demolition of temples to erect mosques on their foundations. 24,000 Brahamans were converted to Islam during this period. In 1517 AD, Mohammad Shah appointed GHAZI CHAK, a Shia, as Chief Minister, who later founded the CHAK dynasty Rule in 1561 AD. He also gave no quarter and no time for recovery to the distressed Kashmiri hindus. He used to get 900 hindus beheaded every day for not having accepted Islam. He also ordered slaughter of 1,000 cows, whom hindus held as sacred, to wreck vengeance and shock them into accepting Islam. Hindus wearing sacred thread had to pay annual tax to CHAK Rulers. YAQUB CHAK, a rank communalist, even got hindus hauled up in their houses to roast them alive. Innumerable hindus left their homes and hearths and while fleeing a barrage of spiteful abuse was let loose to prevent their return to the land of their heritage.

This was followed by another spell of respite for hindus when Kashmir became a province of Mughal Empire. Emperor AKBER (1556-1605 AD) visited Valley thrice in 1589, 1598 and1601 AD. He was admittedly highly tolerant and refrained from falling into the net of religious zeal. He never resoted to the policy of persecution and discrimination against hindus. Many hindus who had fled to safer places outside to save their lives, honour and dignity found conditions in their home land highly conducive for honourable return, of course shocked, to find their homes looted and plundered during the period of their absence.

Fourth Migration :

JAHANGIR’S (1605-27 AD) sectarian predilection and prejudices were clearly pronounced resulting in his shuffling his stances in dealing with Kashmiri hindus, who were forced to marry their daughters to Mughal Officers and Subedars. He disapproved and opposed matrimonial relations between Hindus and Muslims and declared that while a Hindu was debarred by law to marry a Muslim woman, the Muslims had all the license to marry a Hindu woman. ITQUAD KHAN, the Mughal Sardar further sullied Jahangir’s image by forcing the Hindus at gun point to get converted to Islam. He also tortured them by levying taxes. SHAH JEHAN (1627-58 AD) also contributed his bit by desecrating and demolishing a number of temples. AURANGZEB’S (1658-1707 AD) puritanical disposition did not go well with Kashmir. He visited the Valley once in 1665 AD. He appointed 14 atrocious Subedars who persued policy of Islamization. Notable among them was IFTEKHAR KHAN (1671-75 AD) for his cruelity of all sorts to leave Kashmiri Hindus no alternative but to embrace Islam or quit the homeland. A delegation of 500 Kashmiri Hindus led by KRIPA RAM, a learned person, called on SHRI GURU TEG BAHADUR to narrate the woeful tales of diabolical misrule of AURANGZEB patronized IFTEKHAR KHAN. The great saint from Punjab went to Delhi for redressal of Kashmiri Hindus grievances and got martyred by cunning AURANGZEB in 1675. Hence due to continued persecution including killings and desecration of temples the exodus continued unabated. Justice Jia Lal Kilam records in his ‘History of the Kashmiri Pandits’ (with due reference to the earlier histories written by Muslim historians like Fauq, Hassan and Azim Khan – the latter being reportedly an eye-witness of the episode) that “Muhatta Khan (who appeared on the scene towards the end of Mughal Rule) was credited with a deep knowledge of Islamic laws , somehow or other found fault with the policy followed by the Naib Subedar Mir Ahmed Khan towards the hindus and made it plain that ascendency of the hindus was intolerable from every point of view. He laid a prayer before the Subedar to the following effect that No Hindu should ride a horse, nor should he wear a shoe; they should not wear Jama ( an article of Mughal dress); they should not bear arms; they should not visit any garden; they should not have Tilak mark on their foreheads; and their children should not receive any education. The Subedar refused to agree to these proposals. But Muhatta Khan who was of a sterner stuff could not take this lying down and he took the law into his own hands and established his seat in a mosque wherefrom he issued orders in fucrtherance of his proposals. He gained huge following and his fans were deputed to harass and humiliate the Hindus in general. He issued an edict that whenever a Hindu is seen riding a horse, he should be pulled down, Tilak mark should be erased from his forehead and his turban and shoes should be snatched away. Besides, orders were issued that no Hindu should attend any school or visit a garden, nor should he wear decent dress and so on.This was a signal for a general rising and an orgy of loot, plunder and murder was let loose. Muhatta Khan soon over-powered the Subedar and assumed all powers of the State. Having done so, he ordered a systematic attack upon the Hindu areas. Hundreds of them were killed and maimed and most of them were looted and their houses burnt”.

Fifth Migration :

The AFGHAN RULE (1753-1820 AD) was ruthless and atrocious. The period under two upstarts, namely, LAL KHAN KHATTAK and FAQIR ULLAH was extremely tyrannical KHATTAK was given to insane rage and sometimes got the entire family killed on mere suspicion. He got hundreds of Hindus killed because he suspected his father had been killed at the instance of a Kashmiri Hindu noble, KAILASH DHAR, who was killed in broad day light in the court of the Shia Governor, AMIR KHAN JAWANSHER, at the instane of FAZAL KANTH, the diabolical son of FAQIR ULLAH, who was then Chief Minister. The episode left hindus alarmed, panicked, helpless and desperate resulting in their flight to safe shelters in Poonch and Kabul. The misrule touched lowest ebb under the Governorship of HAJI KARIM DAD KHAN and ASAD KHAN. For minor offences prople were tied in pairs and thrown into river.Women were sexually abused. The despotic ASAD KHAN got the belly of an outside surgeon cut, for failure to set right his eye, to verify his threat. ASAD assumed the title of NADIR SHAH II in 1784 AD. ATTA MOHD, another Afghan Governor, persecuted Hindus relentlessly and earned notoriety for his insatiable lust for beautiful Kashmiri women. Apprehensive Hindu parents got the good looks of their daughters sullied to evade attention of Governor’s agents. Anand Kaul Bamzie records in his book ‘The Kashmiri Pandit’, JABBAR KHAN, the last Afghan Governor who got killed at Shopian on july15, 1819 AD, was once told by someone that it was a common notion among the Pandits that snow falls invariably at the Shivratri night (13th day of the dark fortnight Phagun). To test this, he ordered that the Pandits should not observe this festival in Phagun (February-March) but in Har (June-July). Accordingly, it had to be observed on the corresponding night in the latter months. It so happened that even on that night flakes of snow, preceded by a heavy rainfall which had rendered the atmosphere very cold, fell. The bard then, mocking at him sang : ‘Wuchhton Yi Jabbar Jandah Haras ti karun vandah’ (Look at Jabbar, the wretch, even Har he turned into winter)”.

The capture of Kashmir by Sikhs marked the deliverance of the Kashmiri Hindus from the barbarous Afghan Governors. Pt BIRBAL DHAR’s political maturity paved the way for Maharaja RANJIT SINGH to establish SIKH RULE (1820-46 AD) in the Valley. The sounds of bells again started emanating from the temples. The Sikh rule was an era of peace for all. Some stray instances of harshness by the Sikh rulers apart, they were not cunning, cruel and fanatic religious zealots as their Muslim predecessors. Young husband; a British Political Resident in Kashmir, who had travelled extensively in Kashmir and other areas around the Himalayas as also Central Asia/China; observed “ The Sikhs were no so barbarically cruel as the Afghans’ but they were hard and rough masters”.

Sixth Migration :

The last Governor of the Sikh Rule, IMAM-UD-DIN was made to surrender the possession of Kashmir to Raja GULAB SINGH in pursuance of the Treaty of Amritsar signed on March 16, 1846 AD. The Dogra dynasty lasted for a little over a century and saw four Maharajas, namely, GULAB SINGH (!846-57), RANBIR SINGH (1857-85), PARTAP SINGH (1885-1925) and HARI SINGH (1925-1952). The J&K State acceded to India on October 26, 1947, but the hereditary rule of the Dogras was abolished in 1952. In the wakw of the British Government’s pervasive and decisive intervention in the affairs of the State the period could well be called the Dogra-British rule rather than the Dogra rule alone. The British pursued their known policy of divide and rule and exploited the jealousy among the newly educated Muslim youth against the well educated Kashmiri Pandits to carve out a situation to set stage for desperate Muslim youth to enact scenes of violent political agitation. The KPs became a eyesore for the simple reason of their outshining others. SHEIKH ABDULLAH, then the most prominent leader of the Muslim Reading Room Group, minced no words to voice resentment and made provocative speeches in mosques resulting in Kashmiri Muslims repeating history of loot, arson and murder on July 13, 1931, a black day for Kashmiri Pandits, ironically celebrated by the local government and the Muslims as martyrs’ day even now. The frenzied mob went beserk and the Maharaja’s administration failed to protect the terrorized KPs, who were taken unawares.Thousands of KPs had to flee the Valley for life.

Seventh Migration :

The post independence period witnessed yet another spell of migration by the hapless KPs from Northern, Northwestern and Northeastern parts of Kashmir; to capital city of Srinagar in the wake of Pak raiders invasion in October, 1947 aided and abetted by the State of Pakistan; where local zealots joined hands with hordes of savages from NWFP, except Srinagar and South Kashmir, behaving worse that their Afghan ancestors.

Innumerable prominent KPs had to bid unwilling adieu to their land of birth due to ever dwindling and waning chances of livelihood despite merit, abolition of zamindari system that reduced thousands of KP owners as paupers owing to lack of due compensation as also discrimination of KP youth in matters of admission to higher education and technical /professional institutions. The process of slow exodus was further aggravated by the events like Relic agitation (1963) and forcible abduction and conversion of a hindu girl (1967).

Eighth Migration :

When G M SHAH @ GUL SHAH snatched political power from his estranged brother-in-law in 1984 he masterminded the construction of a mosque within the premises of New Secretariat at Jammu and provoked muslims in Srinagar (February 20, 1986) to communalise the situation to rebut the criticism of the valiant people of Jammu. He deliberately raised the bogey of ‘Islam Khatre Mein Hai’ that led to unleashing spree of desecration of hindus’ places of worship. MUFTI SYED, then President of the local Congress unit, patronized a crude and confirmed fundamentalist theologist, QAZI NISSAR of Soth Kashmir to spearhead a movement that led to level raising of the temples in the far and wide of Southern Kashmir and the consequent fear psychosis among KPs. This episode of 1986 made two things crystal clear that Kashmir was for muslims only and the slogan of Kashmiriat ( secularism with reference to Kashmir) was a farce. Looked from the historical perspective these events formed a link in the chain of persecution of of KPs over centuries in the past at the hands of muslims. Numerous KP families disposed of their immoveable properties and left the Valley for good.

Ninth Migration :

The happenings of the midnight of January 19/20, 1990 dealt the blow responsible for the current spell of forcible en masse migration of the Kashmiri Pandit community. This was followed by the ruthless public killings of over 300 people belonging to the miniscule minority throwin the whole community in a state of shock and continued mourning. This started with the exchange of five dreaded militants to secure release of Rubia; daughter of then Union Home Minister MUFTI SYED, whose secular and nationalist credentials were already suspect in the eyes of KPs; from the clutches of her kidnappers. Pakistan establishment was pursuing the policy of OP-TOPAC pronounced by then Pak President, Gen. ZIA-UL_HAQ in a Top Secret meeting at Islamabad in April, 1988. The indoctrinated Muslim youth were motivated to rally also muslims under the religious theme of Jehad to fight the enemy. The ‘holy’ war supposed to be against the infidels ruling Kashmir from New Delhi but a beginning was desired to be made with hitting the KPs labeling them as agents of India and branding them as traitors who had allegedly always stabbed local muslims in the back. As aptly observed by Prof K L Bhan in his book ‘Paradise Lost’, “No saner voice rose among the enlightened literate Kashmiri muslims, who sealed their lips, curbed their conscience and smothered their soul in astonishingly mysterious silence”.

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The ancestors of most Kashmiri Muslims were probably Kashmiri Pandits (Brahmins). Because genetic research shows that Kashmiri Muslims have an exactly 0 genetic distance from ethnic Kashmiri Pandits. They are also very similar to Brahmins and other upper castes from Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.

Karbala and Hussaini Brahmin :

Hussaini Brahmin is a Mohyal community with links to both Hinduism and Islam. They are spread across Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan; Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Delhi and other parts of India, and also in Arabia. Citing source from history of the Muhiyals, published in 1911 CE it is disclosed that about 1400 Brahmins had been living in Baghdad when the event of Karbala took place.

During the war of Karbala between Nabi Mohammad Saheb's grandson Imam Husain and Yazid. When Imam Husian was cornered in Karbala near Daria-E-Furat now known as Hindiyah he wrote letter to his child hood friend Habib and another letter was written to A Hindu King.


This letter was written by Imam Husain's son Ali Ibn-E-Husain to his cousin brother Samudragupt the King of Bharat. This many sound strange that how can a Muslim be a Hindu's cousin brother.


Around 1400 Years back the king of Iran was of Parsi religion had 2 daughters Meher Bano and Shaher Bano.


Meher Bano was married to King Chandragupt and Meher Bano's name was renamed to Chandralekha. After few years Chandralekha's younger sister Shaher Bano was married to Imam Husain. Chandralekha and Chandragupt had a son called Samudragupt and was the King of Bharat when he got letter from his cousin brother Ali Ibn-E-Husain.


King Samudragupt swiftly arranged a group of brave soldiers and sent them to Karbala. The commander of that army was Rehab Dutt who was also a Mohyal Brahman. It is said that when Rehab Dutt reached Karbala it was too later and Imam Husain was martyred.


To avenge death of Imam Husain's death Rehab Dutt's army joined hands with a Arab named Janab-E-Mukhtar who was admirer of Imam Husain and they fought a memorable battle with the army of Yazid.


The place where Rehab Dutt's army stayed in Karbala is known as Dayar-E-Hind also known as Hindiyah and even at present times this place is known as Hindiyah in Iraq.


Some of these Brahmins got martyred in Karbala, some stayed in Karbala and some returned back to Bharat. History remembers these Brahmin's as Husaini Brahmins.