Aryans and Asur Conflict :
conflict between Devtas / Aryans and Asurs is mentioned in Veds and
Purans to understand again we have to go in history.
Asurs are none other than Assyrians and Ashur is ancient religious capital
of Assyria, located on the west bank of the Tigris River in northern
to Lieutenant Colonel Laurence Austine Waddell :
Makers of Civilization in Race and History :
of the Pre-Indian homeland of the "Indo-Aryans" :
On the other hand, I observed, by personally visiting most of the oldest
reputed city sites in Gangetic India and studying all the archreological
reports of the excavations made of all such sites, and most of them
went through all the strata down to the virgin soil, that no trace whatever
of any ancient Civilization in Gangetic India has been found which can
be dated earlier than about the seventh century B.C. and no inscription
before the fourth century B.C. And this still remains the case at the
The Bharats were the descendants of the famous king and emperor Bharata,
the tenth Aryan king who is now disclosed in these pages as a historical
Sumerian emperor of Mesopotamia, with existing contemporary inscriptions
and fixed date. Most of the later Aryankings, princes and nobles claimed
descent from him, so that most of the leading Aryan clans claimed to
be Bharats and especially those forming this great immigration, which
warred amongst themselves for the partition of Gangetic India.)
thus became evident that the Indo-Aryans with their ready-made Civilization
and Vedas and their long lines of kings and dynasties of their pre-Indian
period, had entered Gangetic India about the beginning of the seventh
century B.C., that is shortly before the Great War of the Bharat Aryans
(as the ruling Indo-Aryan princes called themselves as we shall see)
for the partition of Gangetic and Southern India and Rajputana, as described
in their great Indian epic, the Maha-Bharata. And this epoch was also
shortly before the epoch of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism,
whose birth in India is placed about 557 B.C., when Indian Civilization
burst suddenly into view with its fully-fledged Civilization and Brahmanism
and bulky Indian literature and writing, with continuous Indian history
down to the present day.
the Kurus who formed the leading Aryan tribe in the great war of partition
of Gangetic India, preserved the tradition that they were driven forth
from their old homeland in Kuru by a "curse".
Then, the clues to the pre-Indian homeland of these Aryan immigrants
into Gangetic India obtained by my critical comparative study of their
ready-made civilization with its social and political constitutions,
laws, religion, and its Vedic literature, led me to Mesopotamia and
Asia Minor of the Hittites (the ancient name of which, including
Syria, was Kur), with their correspondingly advanced Civilization
of the same type.
I then picked up the traditional King-Lists of the Early Aryan kings
which are embedded in the Indian epic of "The Ancient Heroes,"
the Puranas-epics which have hitherto been scornfully rejected by all
Vedic scholars as fabulous, merely because they could find no traces
of those Early Aryan kings in India, for the good reason as now transpires
that most of those kings had never been in India at all.
of these Pauranic King-Lists with those of the Sumerians, Babylonians
and Hittites disclosed that several of the names of the Early Aryan
kings were substantially identical with those of the Sumerian and Babylonian
kinglists and occupied the same chronological position, and were substantially
identical also in the exploits of those kings. And further scrutiny
disclosed, as shown below, that all the names and titles of those early
kings were identical in both lists, Sumero-Babylonian and Indo-Aryan,
from the first king of the First Sumerian Dynasty continuously downwards
to the end of the Kassi Dynasty in the late, Babylonian period, not
only in the names and titles, but also in their exact chronological
order and in the achievements of the leading kings.
This central discovery, therefore, established absolutely it
was also found that most of the leading historical Sumerian kings and
priest-kings were celebrated in the Vedic psalms of the Hindus as famous
kings and priest-kings of the Aryan race, and some of them as authors
of Vedic psalms. It was thus disclosed that Mesopotamia of the Sumerian
period had been for long a homeland of the Early Aryan ruling race,
whose later eastern branch had migrated to Gangetic India as the Indo-Aryans
about the beginning of the seventh century B.C.
Further comparison with the king-lists of the Khatti, Hatti or "Hitt-ites"
of Asia Minor and Upper Mesopotamia accounted for the Indo-Aryan branch
of the Aryans in the interval between the twelfth and seventh centuries
B.C. I observed that the names of many of the "Hittite" kings,
and more especially those subsequent to the fall and expulsion of the
Kassi Dynasty of Babylon, with the end of the Sumerian rule in Babylonia,
bore names substantially identical with, and in the same chronological
order as, the later pre-Indian kings of the Indo-Aryan lists in the
Kur, literally meaning "Mountain-land" was an old Sumerian
name for Asia Minor, and especially its eastern portion, and I have
shown that this Kur was also obviously the source of Suria of the Greeks,
the "Syria" of the Romans, and that Suria was a name for Cappadocia
in the time of Herodotus, and was also used for Central and Eastern
Asia Minor by the Seleucid Greeks."
(1. WPOB. 12 f. The name appears to survive in Kurdistan, for S.E. Asia
Minor, and in the Giaour title for Mt. Amanus and numerous old Hittite
sites in Asia Minor.
2. lb., 12. And see also its use by Alexander's historians. who included
in Syria all Upper Mesopotamia west of the Tigris, Arrian, Anabasis,
5,25; 7, 9, etc.
3. lb., 12. 4. lb., 13.)
leading clans also of the Indo-Aryans who formed "The Great Migration"
to Gangetic India are often bracketed together in the Vedas as the Kuru-Panch(-ala),
which corresponds as I observed to the Surio-Phoiniki of the Greco-Romans,
that is the "Syrio-Phoenicians" and in the Vedas the "Panch(ala),"
that is the Aryan Phoenicians, bear also the title of Krivi, which is
obviously dialectically derived from thisKur or "Syria."
this, as associating the Indo-Aryan remnant of the Sumerians with the
Khatti or "Hitt-ites" it was significant that all the Indo-Aryan
princes of the Great Migration and who were of the Bharat line, who
shortly after their arrival in Gangetic India fought amongst themselves
for the partition of India in the Great War of the Bharats, called themselves
and were called Khattiyo, which in the old Indian Pali and in its later
Sanskrit form possesses the identical literal meaning of "ruler"
or "ruling caste" as the Khatti title of the "Hitt-ites"
has in both the Hittite and Sumerian languages.
This Kur Land, or Eastern Asia Minor with Syria, was also significantly
in its south-eastern province of Comagene in "Upper Syria"
bordering Cappadocia, as shown in these pages, the old homeland of the
Aryan Kassi or Kashi or Kashshi Dynasty who ruled Babylonia for over
six centuries till about 1200 B.C.
Their old Syrian capital there was presumably at their eponymous city
latterly called Gashshia or Kishshia above Carchemish, the Samosta capital
of Comagene of the Greeks, with old Hittite remains, at the first bridge
over the Euphrates, where Strabo records began the overland caravan
road to India.
It was natural that the remnant of the Kassi or Kashi Dynasty with
their clansmen should return to their old home on expulsion from Babylonia
by the Semites and we find members of this Kashi clan amongst the emigrants
to India, the road to which from Asia Minor and Syria ran from their
old capital on the Upper Euphrates.
lb., 13 2. WPOB. 8 f.
3. Wi-si-ti-lsh (or -Bir). On ti, cp. Br. 2550 and 9518. And on Ish
"hero" Br. 5707; PSL. 134; MD. 19. And it has the alternative
value of Bir or Bar (MD. 281. Br. 1724), which discloses the Sumerian
origin of the Latin Vir, the Sanskrit Virya, "hero".
Vicitra (or Wicitra) Virya. On Virya, "hero," see previous
note. The r in Wicitra is presumably the r which the Sanskrit frequently
intrudes Cockneywise into the old Pali and Sumerian names.)
further, I observed that the last historical king of the Khatti or Hittites,
namely, WI-SI-TI-the-Hero with his capita at Carchemish in Upper-Syria,
was identical with VICITRA (or "Wicitra)-the-Hero, of the Kuru
Line, the father of the First traditional King of Gangetic India (Dhrita-Rashtra)
who was the first semi-historical king of Gangetic India and who in
his old age was the contemporary of The Great War of tke Bharats (or
Khattiyo) for the partition of Gangetic India, at the dawn I of the
historical period in Gangetic India.
These significant new historical facts, the details of which are
fully given in my forthcoming "Origin of Indian Civllization,"
conclusively fixed not only the fact of that Great Migration of Aryans
of the Kuru line to Gangetic India as the Indo-Aryans, but also showed
that it came mainly from Eastern Kur or Asia Minor and Syria of the
Hittites, and consisted of the remnants of the Sumerian or Aryan stock
left there with accretions from Persia and there was also disclosed
the Cause of that Great Migration to Gangetic India, which brought there
the official King-Lists and Chronicles of the Early Aryans, and its
Cause of "The Great Migration" of Aryan Remnants from
Eastern Kur or Asia Minor (and Syria) to Gangetic India and its date
The immediate cause which led to this Great Migration of the Kurus,
as the remnants of the "Sumerians" or Early Aryan stock left
in Kur or Eastern Asia Minor, including Syria-Phoenicia and Kurdistan,
was obviously the devastating and annihilating war of extermination
waged by the notorious Semitic Assyrian king Sargon II against the cluster
of old mountain states of Eastern Asia Minor to the north and west of
Assyria and Babylonia, from Lake Van in Armenia to Cilicia and Syria-Phoenicia
in the west.
was the last straw after the series of similar ruthless conquests by
his predecessers, who brutally butchered their victims, crucifying and
flaying them alive and transporting many of the remainder wholesale
into captivity, as they did likewise to the Jews.
Sargon II captured the southern Hittite capital Carchemish in 717 B.C.
and killed its king Wisiti-the-Hero, the last of the once mighty Hittite
kings and reduced Carchemish to a province of his empire under an Assyrian
governor. And concurrently the Cimmerians had occupied the greater part
of Cappadocia in the north.
caught between the two jaws of a vice, the Great Migration of the Kurus,
their princes and priests and their families and army of retainers to
Gangetic India is disclosed as a great flight of refugees fleeing from
Carchemish and Syria-Phoenicia, Kurdistan and Armenia, to escape from
the atrocities of the barbarous Assyrian victors, and the probable attack
by the Cimmerians on the north.
now explains for the first time the cryptic reference in the early post-Vedic
literature that the Kurus were driven out of their old home of Kuru-Land
by a curse and it also explains why the "Asuras" are called
"devils" in Indian literature.
Asia Minor's loss was India's gain and amongst other things it preserved
for us from destruction the uniquely complete official King-Lists and
Chronicles of the Early Aryan kings.
The apparent line of this great flight of the Kuru-panch(-ala) Khattiyo
or "Hittites" through Persia and Seistan-Gandhara across the
Indus Valley and border of Rajputana to Gangetic India is traced in
my "Origin of Indian Civilization".
The date of the Kings-lists & chronicles of the early Aryans
of the Indo-Aryans :
We now gain through the above historical criterions, which fix the date
of the Great Migration that brought to India the official King-Lists
and Chronicles of the pre-Indian period of the Indo-Aryans, the necessary
chronological material for fixing also the date when these King-Lists
of the Early Aryans now embedded in the Epic of the Ancient Heroes-the
That date according to the most recent estimates by European Sanskrit
scholars, although made in ignorance of the locality of the pre-Indian
homeland of the Indo-Aryans and of the date of the migration and of
the date of the Great Bharat Wars, is nevertheless remarkably in general
agreement with our newly found facts. By finding references to the Puranas
as being already in existence and esteemed sacred in the very earliest
post-Vedic literature, and by the internal evidence of the Puranas themselves,
which divided their king-lists into those of "The Past" (that
is the pre-Indian
lists with which the old lists closed), and those of "The Future"
(that is in the Indian period, beginning with kings immediately after
the Great War of the Bharats for the partition of India), they place
the "probable" date for the closing of the old list variously
at 600 B.C. to 950 B.C.
The latter earlier date is got by including a considerable number of
the kings of the Vedic period, which period, however, we shall find
ended before this Great Migration.
Now, however, we find by our more precise historical data that these
old King-Lists were closed on or about 717 B.C., when the great flight
from Kur Land in Eastern Asia Minor with Upper Syria took place eastwards
to India through Persia on the tragic death of the ill-fated king Vicitra
And allowing sixteen years or so for a temporary sojourn in Persia,
of which I have found evideuce, the date of arrival in Gangetic India
would be about 700 B.C. The leader of that migration into Gangetic India
was clearly the son and successor of King Vicitra in the lists, namely
"Dhrita-of-the-Empire" (Dhrita-Rashtra), who is now disclosed
as the first historical Aryan king of Gangetic India, and significantly
he was made in the later Indian mythology the white guardian emperor
of the Eastern quarter of the world. By the time of the outbreak of
the Great Bharat War amongst his sons and other followers for the partition
of India, he was "very old and blind".
PIT. 54. 182.
2. In Pali Dhata-Rattho. In early post-Vedic literature he is the son
of Vicitra (cp. MKI. I, 403), but the later Brahman editors of the Puranas
make him the son of the widow of Vicitra by a Brahman priest, which
is cearly fictitious.
3. WBR. 84. He is white in complexion and king of the Gandharvas, who
seem to be a mythic memory of the Gandharas or natives of old Candahar.)
by allowing him forty-six years reign after the death of his father
in 717 B.C. (and his father was an elderly man, as he paid tribute to
the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III in 738 B.C.) until the epoch of
the Great War, this would make the date of that Great Bharat War about
670 B.C., and this date is in general agreement with its estimates from
the calculated dates for the semi-historical Indian kings who now begin
to appear for the first time in Gangetic India, though the first fixed
date in Indian history is not until Candra-Gupta in 321 B.C., who was
a contemporary of Alexander the Great.
Moreover, it is clear that the King-Lists of "The Past" Early
Aryan kings were already closed before the Great War of the Bharats
from the fact that these lists are stated in the Epic of that war (the
Maha-Bharata) to have been recited to King Dhrita (or Dhata) on his
arrival in Gangetic India along with the enumeration of all the provinces
and tribes in (this new land of) India, of which he claimed to be the
emperor, which is also confirmed by his title of Rashtra.
Thus the King-Lists and Chronicles of the Early Aryans of "The
Past" or pre-Indian period embedded in the Purans were evidently
closed about 717 B.C. So we now can pass on to the examination of these
The official character of the
Indian Kings-lists & chronicles :
more eloquent testimony to the sincerity of the Indian belief in the
historic genuineness of this genealogical tradition of the ancient kings
and heroes of the Aryans could perhaps be desired than the simple opening
sentence above quoted in the heading of this chapter, by which the heraldic
bard in the Epic introduced his official proclamation of these lists,
of which he was presumably the official custodian.
The material had already, in Ancient India, become so venerable as to
have acquired a sacred character.
The ancient Indo-Aryans treasured as sacred those memories of the beginnings
of their Aryan nation, the names of the famous heroes, from their first
Aryan king onwards, who had led the tribes to victory, or who had welded
together the divers tribes into a nation and enlarged their liberties.
Ages had not dimmed the shining glory of these names, which were handed
down with scrupulous Care in writing, with all the sanctity of a popular
cult. This explains why they have been so carefully preserved and why
they have so manifestly escaped the Brahman censor, when the Epics Were
Sanskritized about the beginning of the Christian era and eularged by
the Brahman priests by the introduction of religious dogmatics.
related to Assyria :